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Last Updated: 2018-12-22
Isoleucine biosynthesis begins with L-threonine from the threonine biosynthesis pathway. L-threonine interacts with a threonine dehydratase biosynthetic releasing water, a hydrogen ion and (2Z)-2-aminobut-2-enoate. This compound is isomerized into a 2-iminobutanoate which interacts with water and a hydrogen ion spontaneously, resulting in the release of ammonium and 2-ketobutyric acid. This compound reacts with pyruvic acid and hydrogen ion through an acetohydroxybutanoate synthase / acetolactate synthase 2 resulting in carbon dioxide and (S)-2-Aceto-2-hydroxybutanoic acid. The latter compound is reduced by an NADPH driven acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase releasing NADP and acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase. The latter compound is dehydrated by a dihydroxy acid dehydratase resulting in 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid.This compound reacts in a reversible reaction with L-glutamic acid through a Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase resulting in oxoglutaric acid and L-isoleucine.
Isoleucine Biosynthesis References
Andreadis A, Hsu YP, Hermodson M, Kohlhaw G, Schimmel P: Yeast LEU2. Repression of mRNA levels by leucine and primary structure of the gene product. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jul 10;259(13):8059-62.Pubmed: 6330094
Branduardi P, Longo V, Berterame NM, Rossi G, Porro D: A novel pathway to produce butanol and isobutanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2013 May 4;6(1):68. doi: 10.1186/1754-6834-6-68.Pubmed: 23642236
Storms RK, Holowachuck EW, Friesen JD: Genetic complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae leu2 gene by the Escherichia coli leuB gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1981 Sep;1(9):836-42.Pubmed: 9279396
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