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Showing 21 - 30 of 109292 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0000549

Pw000525 View Pathway
Metabolite

2-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency

Homo sapiens
2-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease. 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase is an enzyme of the Krebs cycle that catalyzes the oxidation of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA. The deficiency of 2-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex results in the disorder of Krebs cycle with accumulation of succinyl CoA. The primary manifestations include developmental delay, ataxia, opisthotonus, seizure and other neurological symptoms.

Disease

SMP0120613

Pw121869 View Pathway
Metabolite

2-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency

Mus musculus
2-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease. 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase is an enzyme of the Krebs cycle that catalyzes the oxidation of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA. The deficiency of 2-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex results in the disorder of Krebs cycle with accumulation of succinyl CoA. The primary manifestations include developmental delay, ataxia, opisthotonus, seizure and other neurological symptoms.

Disease

SMP0120660

Pw121916 View Pathway
Metabolite

2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Rattus norvegicus
2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (Hydroxyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency; MHBD) is a rare inborn disease of metabolism caused by a mutation in the HSD17B10 gene which codes for 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2. A deficiency in this enzyme results in accumulation of L-lactic acid in blood, spinal fluid, and urine; 2-ethylhydracrylic acid, 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid, and tiglylglycine in urine. Symptoms include cerebal atrophy, motor and mental retardation, overactivity and behavior issues, seizures and progressive neurological defects leading to early death. Treatment includes a high carbohydrate and low protein diet.

Disease

SMP0120439

Pw121690 View Pathway
Metabolite

2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Mus musculus
2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (Hydroxyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency; MHBD) is a rare inborn disease of metabolism caused by a mutation in the HSD17B10 gene which codes for 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2. A deficiency in this enzyme results in accumulation of L-lactic acid in blood, spinal fluid, and urine; 2-ethylhydracrylic acid, 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid, and tiglylglycine in urine. Symptoms include cerebal atrophy, motor and mental retardation, overactivity and behavior issues, seizures and progressive neurological defects leading to early death. Treatment includes a high carbohydrate and low protein diet.

Disease

SMP0000137

Pw000061 View Pathway
Metabolite

2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Homo sapiens
2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (Hydroxyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency; MHBD) is a rare inborn disease of metabolism caused by a mutation in the HSD17B10 gene which codes for 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2. A deficiency in this enzyme results in accumulation of L-lactic acid in blood, spinal fluid, and urine; 2-ethylhydracrylic acid, 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid, and tiglylglycine in urine. Symptoms include cerebal atrophy, motor and mental retardation, overactivity and behavior issues, seizures and progressive neurological defects leading to early death. Treatment includes a high carbohydrate and low protein diet.

Disease

SMP0002108

Pw002096 View Pathway
Metabolite

2-O-alpha-Mannosyl-D-glycerate Degradation

Escherichia coli
2-O-α-Mannosyl-D-glycerate (MG; also named as Alpha-Mannosylglycerate) is an organic compound that will affect the osmosis in hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria. In E.coli, 2-O-α-mannosyl-D-glycerate PTS permease (mngA) import MG into cell, and then phosphorylate MG to 2-O-(6-phospho-α-mannosyl)-D-glycerate by phosphocarrier protein HPr. 2-O-(6-phospho-α-mannosyl)-D-glycerate is converted to glyceric acid as well as mannose 6-phosphate by alpha-mannosidase mngB. Finally, glyceric acid is catalyzed to 2-Phospho-D-glyceric acid with ATP as energy source by Glycerate kinase 2. E.coli can't use MG as osmotic stress protection, but it can use MG as a carbon source.

Metabolic

SMP0002120

Pw002108 View Pathway
Metabolite

2-Oxoglutarate Decarboxylation to Succinyl-CoA

Escherichia coli
2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is consisted of oxoglutarate decarboxylase, dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase), which is a rate-limiting enzyme of the citric acid cycle (TCA cycle) in prokaryote. The reaction that catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex can be generalized as 2-oxoglutarate + coenzyme A + NAD+ → succinyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH. During the OGDHC reaction cycle, 2-oxoglutarate is bound and decarboxylated by E1(o), a thiamin-diphosphate cofactor containing enzyme. The succinyl group is transferred to the lipoyl domain of E2(o) where it is carried to the active site and transferred to coenzyme A, forming succinyl-CoA. During this transfer the lipoyl group is reduced to dihydrolipoyl. The succinyl-CoA is released and the lipoyl domain of E2(o) is oxidized by E3 via transfer of protons to NAD, forming NADH and regenerating the lipoyl group back to lipoyllysine for another cycle. Under aerobic growth conditions the OGDHC not only catalyzes a key reaction in the TCA cycle, it also provides succinyl-CoA for methionine and lysine biosynthesis, the latter pathway also leading to peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The synthesis of the OGDHC is repressed by anaerobiosis and is also subject to glucose repression. It is induced by aerobic growth on acetate. (EcoCyc)

Metabolic

SMP0001904

Pw001890 View Pathway
Metabolite

2-Oxopent-4-enoate Metabolism

Escherichia coli
The pathway starts with trans-cinnamate interacting with a hydrogen ion, an oxygen molecule, and a NADH through a cinnamate dioxygenase resulting in a NAD and a cis-3-(3-Carboxyethenyl)-3,5-cyclohexadiene-1,2-diol which then interact together through a 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrophenylpropionate dehydrogenase resulting in the release of a hydrogen ion, an NADH molecule and a 2,3 dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate. The second way by which the 2,3 dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate is acquired is through a 3-hydroxy-trans-cinnamate interacting with a hydrogen ion, a NADH and an oxygen molecule through a 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionate 2-hydroxylase resulting in the release of a NAD molecule, a water molecule and a 2,3-dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate. The compound 2,3 dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate then interacts with an oxygen molecule through a 2,3-dihydroxyphenylpropionate 1,2-dioxygenase resulting in a hydrogen ion and a 2-hydroxy-6-oxonona-2,4,7-triene-1,9-dioate. The latter compound then interacts with a water molecule through a 2-hydroxy-6-oxononatrienedioate hydrolase resulting in a release of a hydrogen ion, a fumarate molecule and (2Z)-2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate. The latter compound reacts spontaneously to isomerize into a 2-oxopent-4-enoate. This compound is then hydrated through a 2-oxopent-4-enoate hydratase resulting in a 4-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoate. This compound then interacts with a 4-hydroxy-2-ketovalerate aldolase resulting in the release of a pyruvate, and an acetaldehyde. The acetaldehyde then interacts with a coenzyme A and a NAD molecule through a acetaldehyde dehydrogenase resulting in a hydrogen ion, a NADH and an acetyl-coa which can be incorporated into the TCA cycle

Metabolic

SMP0002049

Pw002035 View Pathway
Metabolite

2-Oxopent-4-enoate Metabolism 2

Escherichia coli
The pathway starts with trans-cinnamate interacting with a hydrogen ion, an oxygen molecule, and a NADH through a cinnamate dioxygenase resulting in a NAD and a Cis-3-(3-carboxyethyl)-3,5-cyclohexadiene-1,2-diol which then interact together through a 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrophenylpropionate dehydrogenase resulting in the release of a hydrogen ion, an NADH molecule and a 2,3 dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate. The second way by which the 2,3 dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate is acquired is through a 3-hydroxy-trans-cinnamate interacting with a hydrogen ion, a NADH and an oxygen molecule through a 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionate 2-hydroxylase resulting in the release of a NAD molecule, a water molecule and a 2,3-dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate. The compound 2,3 dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate then interacts with an oxygen molecule through a 2,3-dihydroxyphenylpropionate 1,2-dioxygenase resulting in a hydrogen ion and a 2-hydroxy-6-oxonona-2,4,7-triene-1,9-dioate. The latter compound then interacts with a water molecule through a 2-hydroxy-6-oxononatrienedioate hydrolase resulting in a release of a hydrogen ion, a fumarate molecule and (2Z)-2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate. The latter compound reacts spontaneously to isomerize into a 2-oxopent-4-enoate. This compound is then hydrated through a 2-oxopent-4-enoate hydratase resulting in a 4-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoate. This compound then interacts with a 4-hydroxy-2-ketovalerate aldolase resulting in the release of a pyruvate, and an acetaldehyde. The acetaldehyde then interacts with a coenzyme A and a NAD molecule through a acetaldehyde dehydrogenase resulting in a hydrogen ion, a NADH and an acetyl-coa which can be incorporated into the TCA cycle

Metabolic

SMP0120640

Pw121896 View Pathway
Metabolite

21-Hydroxylase Deficiency (CYP21)

Mus musculus
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis). 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and produce a variety of hormones that regulate many essential functions in the body. In people with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, the adrenal glands produce excess androgens, which are male sex hormones. There are three types of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Two types are classic forms, known as the salt-wasting and simple virilizing types. The third type is called the non-classic type. The salt-wasting type is the most severe, the simple virilizing type is less severe, and the non-classic type is the least severe form.

Disease
Showing 21 - 30 of 109292 pathways