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Showing 91 - 100 of 111423 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0014205

Pw015069 View Pathway
Metabolite

Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis

Arabidopsis thaliana
Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipids that incorporate a phosphocholine headgroup into a diacylglycerol backbone. They are the most abundant phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes and has both structural and signalling roles. In eukaryotes, there exist two phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis pathways: the Kennedy pathway and the methylation pathway. The Kennedy pathway begins with the direct phosphorylation of free choline into phosphocholine followed by conversion into CDP-choline and subsequently phosphatidylcholine. It is the major synthesis route in animals. The methylation pathway involves the 3 successive methylations of phosphoethanolamine to form phosphocholine which is then funnelled into the Kennedy pathway to make phosphatidylcholine. In plants, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis is implemented using a mix between the two pathways. An alternative of the methylation pathway uses phosphatidylethanolamine as a starting compound, but no enzyme has been found in Arabidopsis to catalyze the first methylation to form phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine. Many enzymes involved in this pathway are localized to the cell membrane but are not drawn as such for clarity. Instead, they are indicated with a dark green colour and appear to be free floating in the cytosol. The first reaction of the Kennedy pathway involves the membrane-localized enzyme choline/ethanolamine kinase catalyzing the conversion of choline into phosphocholine. Second, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase catalyzes the conversion of phosphocholine to CDP-choline. Last, choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase, localized to the cell membrane, catalyzes phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis from CDP-choline. It requires either magnesium or manganese ions as cofactors. Note that phosphatidylcholine can be converted to either phosphocholine by a non-specific phospholipase or converted to choline by phospholipase D. Phosphocholine can also be converted to choline via phosphoethanolamine/phosphocholine phosphatase. The methylation pathway begins with serine decarboxylase catalyzing the biosynthesis of ethanolamine from serine. It requires pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor. Next, choline/ethanolamine kinase, localized to the cell membrane, catalyzes the conversion of ethanolamine to phosphoethanolamine. Phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT), located in the cytosol, then catalyzes three sequential N-methylation steps to convert phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine. PEAMT uses S-adenosyl-L-methionine as a methyl donor. Phosphocholine then enters the Kennedy pathway. Alternatively, in a subpathway parallel to the Kennedy pathway, phosphoethanolamine can be converted into phosphatidylethanolamine. Phosphatidylethanolamine is also synthesized from phosphatidylserine in the endoplasmic reticulum by phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. Note that phosphatidylethanolamine can be converted to either phosphoethanolamine by a non-specific phospholipase or converted to ethanolamine by phospholipase D. The two methylated intermediates N-methylethanolamine phosphate and N-dimethylethanolamine phosphate can also undergo reactions parallel to the Kennedy pathway to form the methylated intermediates of phosphatidylethanolamine (otherwise catalyzed by phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, to form phosphatidylcholine).

Metabolic

SMP0014212

Pw015076 View Pathway
Metabolite

Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis

Homo sapiens
Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipids that incorporate a phosphocholine headgroup into a diacylglycerol backbone. They are the most abundant phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes and has both structural and signalling roles. In eukaryotes, there exist two phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis pathways: the Kennedy pathway and the methylation pathway. The Kennedy pathway begins with the direct phosphorylation of free choline into phosphocholine followed by conversion into CDP-choline and subsequently phosphatidylcholine. It is the major synthesis route in animals. The methylation pathway involves the 3 successive methylations of phosphatidylethanolamine to form phosphatidylcholine. The first reaction of the Kennedy pathway involves the cytosol-localized enzyme choline/ethanolamine kinase catalyzing the conversion of choline into phosphocholine. Second, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, catalyzes the conversion of phosphocholine to CDP-choline. Last, choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase catalyzes phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis from CDP-choline. It requires either magnesium or manganese ions as cofactors. A parallel Kennedy pathway forms phosphatidylethanolamine from ethanolamine - the only difference being a different enzyme, ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, catalyzing the second step. Phosphatidylethanolamine is also synthesized from phosphatidylserine in the mitochondrial membrane by phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. Phosphatidylethanolamine funnels into the methylation pathway in which phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) then catalyzes three sequential N-methylation steps to convert phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. PEMT uses S-adenosyl-L-methionine as a methyl donor.

Metabolic

SMP0012064

Pw012926 View Pathway
Metabolite

Triacylglycerol Degradation

Arabidopsis thaliana
In higher plants, the primary seed storage reserve is triacylglycerol rather than carbohydrates. Thus, triacylglycerol degradation is an important pathway from which plants obtain energy for growth. First, triacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme localized to the oil body (storage vacuole) membrane, catalyzes the conversion of a triglyceride into a 1,2-diglyceride. Second, the predicted enzyme diglyceride lipase (coloured orange in the image) is theorized to catalyze the conversion of a 1,2-diglyceride iinto a 2-acylglycerol. Third, a 2-acylglycerol is spontaneously converted into a 1-monoglyceride. Fourth, acylhydrolase catalyzes the conversion of a 1-monoglyceride into glycerol. Fifth, glycerol kinase catalyzes the conversion of glycerol into glycerol 3-phosphate. Sixth, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (coloured dark green in the image), localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane, catalyzes the conversion of glycerol 3-phosphate into glycerone phosphate.

Metabolic

SMP0001000

Pw000984 View Pathway
Metabolite

Secondary Metabolites: Histidine Biosynthesis

Escherichia coli
Histidine biosynthesis starts with a product of PRPP biosynthesis pathway, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate which interacts with a hydrogen ion through an ATP phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in an pyrophosphate and a phosphoribosyl-ATP. The phosphoribosyl-ATP interacts with water through a phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase / phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphatase resulting in the release of pyrophosphate, hydrogen ion and a phosphoribosyl-AMP. The same enzyme proceeds to interact with phosphoribosyl-AMP and water resulting in a 1-(5'-Phosphoribosyl)-5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide. The product is then isomerized by a N-(5'-phospho-L-ribosyl-formimino)-5-amino-1-(5'-phosphoribosyl)-4-imidazolecarboxamide isomerase resulting in a PhosphoribosylformiminoAICAR-phosphate, which reacts with L-glutamine through an imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase resulting in a L-glutamic acid, hydrogen ion, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide and a D-erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate. D-erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate reacts with a imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase / histidinol-phosphatase, dehydrating the compound and resulting in a imidazole acetol-phosphate. Next, imidazole acetol-phosphate reacts with L-glutamic acid through a histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase, releasing oxoglutaric acid and L-histidinol-phosphate. The latter compound interacts with water and a imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase / histidinol-phosphatase resulting in L-histidinol and phosphate. L-histidinol interacts with a NAD-driven histidinol dehydrogenase resulting in a Histidinal. Histidinal in turn reacts with water in a NAD driven histidinal dehydrogenase resulting in L-Histidine. L-Histidine then represses ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, regulation its own biosynthesis.

Metabolic

SMP0002430

Pw002537 View Pathway
Metabolite

Isoleucine Biosynthesis

Arabidopsis thaliana
Isoleucine biosynthesis begins with L-threonine from the threonine biosynthesis pathway. L-threonine interacts with a threonine dehydratase biosynthetic releasing water, a hydrogen ion and (2Z)-2-aminobut-2-enoate. This compound is isomerized into a 2-iminobutanoate which interacts with water and a hydrogen ion spontaneously, resulting in the release of ammonium and 2-ketobutyric acid. This compound reacts with pyruvic acid and hydrogen ion through an acetohydroxybutanoate synthase / acetolactate synthase 2 resulting in carbon dioxide and (S)-2-Aceto-2-hydroxybutanoic acid. The latter compound is reduced by an NADPH driven acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase releasing NADP and acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase. The latter compound is dehydrated by a dihydroxy acid dehydratase resulting in 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid.This compound reacts in a reversible reaction with L-glutamic acid through a Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase resulting in oxoglutaric acid and L-isoleucine.

Metabolic

SMP0000815

Pw000794 View Pathway
Metabolite

Proline Metabolism

Escherichia coli
The creation of L-proline in E. coli starts with L-glutamic acid being phosphorylated through an ATP driven glutamate 5-kinase resulting in a L-glutamic acid 5-phosphate. This compound is then reduced through an NADPH driven gamma glutamyl phosphate reductase resulting in the release of a phosphate, an NADP and a L-glutamic gamma-semialdehyde. L-glutamic gamma-semialdehyde is dehydrated spontaneously, resulting in a release of water,hydrogen ion and 1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid. The latter compound is reduced by an NADPH driven pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase which is then reduced to L-proline. L-proline works as a repressor of the pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase enzyme and glutamate 5-kinase. Three genetic loci, proA, proB and proC control the biosynthesis of L-proline in E. coli.The pathway begins with a reaction that is catalyzed by γ-glutamyl kinase, which is encoded by proB. Next, NADPH-dependent reduction of γ-glutamyl phosphate to glutamate-5-semialdehyde, occurs through catalyzation by glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, encoded by proA. Following this, both enzymes join together in a multimeric bi-functional enzyme complex called γ-glutamyl kinase-GP-reductase multienzyme complex. This formation is thought to protect the highly labile glutamyl phosphate from the antagonistic nucleophilic and aqueous environment found in the cell. Finally, NADPH-dependent pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase encoded by proC catalyzes the reduction of pyrroline 5-carboxylate into L-proline. Proline is metabolized in E. coli by returning to the form of L-glutamate, which is then degraded to α-ketoglutarate,which serves as an intermediary of the TCA cycle. Interestingly enough, L-glutamate, the obligate intermediate of the proline degradation pathway, is not able to serve as an outright source of carbon and energy for E. coli, because the rate at which glutamate transport supplies exogenous glutamate is not adequate. The process by which proline is turned into L-glutamate starts with L-proline interacting with ubiquinone through a bifunctional protein putA resulting in an ubiquinol, a hydrogen ion and a 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid. The latter compound is then hydrated spontaneously resulting in a L-glutamic gamma-semialdehyde. This compound is then processed by interacting with water through an NAD driven bifunctional protein putA resulting in a hydrogen ion, NADH and L-glutamic acid.

Metabolic

SMP0080852

Pw081868 View Pathway
Metabolite

Cardiolipin Biosynthesis

Arabidopsis thaliana
Cardiolipin (CL) is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane, and it is essential for the optimal function of numerous enzymes that are involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism . Cardiolipin biosynthesis occurs mainly in the mitochondria. All membrane-localized enzymes are coloured dark green in the image. First, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (or glycerone phosphate) from glycolysis is used by the chloroplastic enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)] to synthesize sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. Second, the mitochondrial enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase esterifies an acyl-group to the sn-1 position of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to form 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid or LPA). Third, the enzyme 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase converts LPA into phosphatidic acid (PA or 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate) by esterifying an acyl-group to the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. PA is then transferred to the inner mitochondrial membrane to continue cardiolipin synthesis. Fourth, magnesium-dependent phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase catalyzes the conversion of PA into CDP-diacylglycerol. Fifth, CDP-diacylglycerol--glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase synthesizes phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP). Sixth, phosphatidylglycerophosphatase and protein-tyrosine phosphatase dephosphorylates PGP to form phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Last, cardiolipin synthase catalyzes the synthesis of cardiolipin by transferring a phosphatidyl group from a second CDP-diacylglycerol to PG. It requires a divalent metal cation cofactor.

Metabolic

SMP0002425

Pw002532 View Pathway
Metabolite

Lysolipid Incorporation into ER

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Lysolipids such as lysophosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylinositol get transported into the cell through a phospholipid ATPase. Once in the cytosol they are incorporated into the ER membrane through a Ale1p transport membrane where phosphatidylcholine is generated.

Metabolic

SMP0002343

Pw002431 View Pathway
Metabolite

Cardiolipin Biosynthesis

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The biosynthesis of cardiolipin (CL) begins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Glycerone phosphate interacts with an NADPH resulting in the release of NADP and glycerol 3-phosphate. Glycerol 3-phosphate reacts with glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase resulting in the release of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid or LysoPA). The resulting compound reacts with an acyl-CoA via lysophosphatidate acyltransferase, resulting in the release of a phosphatidic acid (PA or 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate). Phosphatidic acid is transported to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Once in, it gets transported into the mitochondrial inner membrane. The phosphatidic acid reacts with cytidine triphosphate through a phosphatidate cytidyltransferase resulting in the release of a CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DG). The resulting compound reacts with a glycerol 3-phosphate through a CDP-diacylglycerol-glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase resulting in the release of cytidine monophosphate and phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP). PGP reacts with phosphatidylglycerophosphatase GEP4 resulting in the release of phosphatidylglycerol (PG). PG reacts with a CDP-DG through a cardiolipin synthase resulting in the release of CL and cytidine monophosphate. Cardiolipin remodelling begins with the removal of an acyl chain to form 1-monolysocardiolipin (1-MLCL) via the lipase Cld1p. This is followed by the enzyme Taz1p transferring an acyl chain from a phospholipid (e.g. phosphatidylcholine) to reform cardiolipin.

Metabolic

SMP0122304

Pw123614 View Pathway
Metabolite

Rhamnolipid Biosynthesis

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Rhamnolipids (RL) consist of a fatty acyl moiety composed of a 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkaloid acid (HAA) and a sugar moiety composed of one or two rhamnose sugars. Rhamnolipids function as surfactants and virulence factors and are involved in biofilm formation and cell motility. The rhamnose sugar component is produced via the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway which forms dTDP-L-rhamnose from glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in five steps. First, glucose 6-phosphate is converted into glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) via the enzyme phosphoglucomutase (AlgC). Second, glucose 1-phosphate is converted into dTDP-D-glucose via the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA). Third, dTDP-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB). Fourth, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC). Fifth, dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose is converted into dTDP-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The HAA component is synthesized from 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] diverted from fatty acid biosynthesis via the enzyme 3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy)decanoate synthase (RhIA). The final step in rhamnolipid biosynthesis is the formation of the glycosidic link between the rhamnose sugar component and the HAA component. This is accomplished by two rhamnosyltransferases (RhlB and RhlC) which catalyze sequential glycosyl transfer reactions to first form mono-rhamnolipids (via RhIB) and then di-rhamnolipids (via RhIC). RHlA, RHlB, and RHlC are associated with the inner membrane.

Metabolic
Showing 91 - 100 of 111423 pathways