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Showing 111 - 120 of 111423 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0000044

Pw000043 View Pathway
Metabolite

Histidine Metabolism

Homo sapiens
Histidine, an amino acid, plays an important role in the creation of proteins. It is unique as an amino acid as it is needed for nucleotide formation. The biosynthesis of histidine in adults begins with the condensation of ATP and PRPP (phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate) to form n-5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (phosphoribosyl-ATP). It is also worth noting that PRPP is the beginning compound for purine and pyrimidine creation. Subsequent histidine biosynthetic steps (from phosphoribosyl-ATP onwards) are likely to occur in the intestinal microflora. Elimination of the phosphate and the opening of the ring in phosphoribosyl-ATP forms phosphoribosyl-forminino-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide(phosphoribosyl-forminino-AICAR-phosphate). This is subsequently converted to 5-phosphoribulosyl-forminino-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide. Cleavage of this compound creates imidazole glycerol phosphate and AICAR (aminoimidazolecarboxamide ribonucleotide) with glutamine being involved as an amino group donor. AICAR is used again through the purine pathway while the imidazole glycerol phosphate is converted to imidazole acetal phosphate. Transamination yields histidinol phosphate which is then turned into histidinol, and then, finally, to histidine. L-histidine is catalyzed by histidine ammonia-lyase into urocanic acid. This acid is then converted to 4-imidazolone-5-propionic acid by urocanate hydratase. 4-imidazolone-5-propionic acid is then converted to formiminoglutamic acid, using the enzyme probable imidazolonepropionase. One last reaction occurs to allow for glutamate metabolism, as formiminoglutamic acid is converted to l-glutamic acid through the use of formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase. Histidine is also a precursor for carnosine biosynthesis(via carnosine synthase), with beta-alanine being the rate limiting precursor. Anserine can be synthesized either from carnosine via carnosine N-methyltransferase or from 1-methylhistidine via carnosine synthase. Inversely, cytosolic non-specific dipeptidase catalyzes the synthesis of 1-methylhistidine from anserine. Histidine is found in meat, seeds, nuts and whole grains. It is a very important amino acid in keeping a pH of 7 in the body, as it acts as a shuttle for protons to maintain a balance of acids and bases in the blood and different tissues.

Metabolic

SMP0000812

Pw000790 View Pathway
Metabolite

Arginine Metabolism

Escherichia coli
The metabolism of L-arginine starts with the acetylation of L-glutamic acid resulting in a N-acetylglutamic acid while releasing a coenzyme A and a hydrogen ion. N-acetylglutamic acid is then phosphorylated via an ATP driven acetylglutamate kinase which yields a N-acetyl-L-glutamyl 5-phosphate. This compound undergoes a NDPH dependent reduction resulting in N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde, which then reacts with L-glutamic acid through a acetylornithine aminotransferase / N-succinyldiaminopimelate aminotransferase to produce an N-acetylornithine. Next N-acetylornithine is deacetylated through a acetylornithine deacetylase yielding an ornithine. L-glutamine is used to synthesize carbamoyl phosphate through the interaction of L-glutamine, water, ATP, and hydrogen carbonate. This reaction yields ADP, L-glutamic acid, phosphate, and hydrogen ion. Carbamoyl phosphate and ornithine are used to catalyze the production of citrulline through an ornithine carbamoyltransferase. Citrulline reacts with L-aspartic acid through an ATP dependent enzyme, argininosuccinate synthase to produce pyrophosphate, AMP and argininosuccinic acid. Argininosussinic acid is then lyase to produce L-arginine and fumaric acid. L-arginine can be metabolized into succinic acid by two different sets of reactions: 1. Arginine reacts with succinyl-CoA through a arginine N-succinyltransferase resulting in N2-succinyl-L-arginine while releasing CoA and Hydrogen Ion. N2-succinyl-L-arginine is then dihydrolase to produce a N2-succinyl-L-ornithine through a N-succinylarginine dihydrolase which in turn reacts with oxoglutaric acid through succinylornithine transaminase resulting in L-glutamic acid and N2-succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde. Next N2-succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde reacts with a NAD dependent dehydrogenase resulting in N2-succinylglutamate and releases NADH and hydrogen ion. Finally, N2-succinylglutamate reacts with water through a succinylglutamate desuccinylase resulting in L-glutamic acid and a succinic acid. The succinic acid is then incorporated in the TCA cycle 2. Argine reacts with carbon dioxide and a hydrogen ion through a biodegradative arginine decarboxylase, resulting in Agmatine. Agmatine is transformed into putrescine by reacting with water and an agmatinase, and releasing urea. Putrescine can be metabolized by reaction with either l-glutamic acid or oxoglutaric acid. If putrescine reacts with L-glutamic acid, it reacts through an ATP mediated gamma-glutamylputrescine producing a hydrogen ion, ADP, phosphate and gamma-glutamyl-L-putrescine. Gamma-glutamyl-L-putrescine is reduced via interactions with oxygen, water and a gamma-glutamylputrescine oxidoreductase resulting in ammonium, hydrogen peroxide and 4-gamma-glutamylamino butanal. Dehydrogenated through a NADP mediated reaction lead by gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutaryaldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-gamma-glutamylamino butanal is converted into hydrogen ions, NADPH and 4-glutamylamino butanoate. In turn, the latter compound reacts with water through a gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyrate hydrolase resulting in L-glutamic acid and Gamma aminobutyric acid. On the other hand, if putrescine reacts with oxoglutaric acid through a putrescine aminotransferase, it results in L-glutamic acid, and a 4-aminobutyraldehyde, which continues and reacts with water through a NAD dependent gamma aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase resulting in hydrogen ion, NADH and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Gamma Aaminobutyric acid reacts with oxoglutaric acid through 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase resulting in L-glutamic acid and succinic acid semialdehyde. Succinic acid semialdehyde then reacts with either NADP or NAD to produce succinic acid through succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase or aldehyde dehydrogenase-like protein yneI respectively. Succinic acid can then be integrated in the TCA cycle.

Metabolic

SMP0000830

Pw000810 View Pathway
Metabolite

Histidine Biosynthesis

Escherichia coli
Histidine biosynthesis starts with a product of PRPP biosynthesis pathway, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate which interacts with a hydrogen ion through an ATP phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in an pyrophosphate and a phosphoribosyl-ATP. The phosphoribosyl-ATP interacts with water through a phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase / phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphatase resulting in the release of pyrophosphate, hydrogen ion and a phosphoribosyl-AMP. The same enzyme proceeds to interact with phosphoribosyl-AMP and water resulting in a 1-(5'-Phosphoribosyl)-5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide. The product is then isomerized by a N-(5'-phospho-L-ribosyl-formimino)-5-amino-1-(5'-phosphoribosyl)-4-imidazolecarboxamide isomerase resulting in a PhosphoribosylformiminoAICAR-phosphate, which reacts with L-glutamine through an imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase resulting in a L-glutamic acid, hydrogen ion, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide and a D-erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate. D-erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate reacts with a imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase / histidinol-phosphatase, dehydrating the compound and resulting in a imidazole acetol-phosphate. Next, imidazole acetol-phosphate reacts with L-glutamic acid through a histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase, releasing oxoglutaric acid and L-histidinol-phosphate. The latter compound interacts with water and a imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase / histidinol-phosphatase resulting in L-histidinol and phosphate. L-histidinol interacts with a NAD-driven histidinol dehydrogenase resulting in a Histidinal. Histidinal in turn reacts with water in a NAD driven histidinal dehydrogenase resulting in L-Histidine. L-Histidine then represses ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, regulation its own biosynthesis.

Metabolic

SMP0000810

Pw000788 View Pathway
Metabolite

L-Alanine Metabolism

Escherichia coli
L-alanine is an essential component of proteins and peptidoglycan. The latter also contains about three molecules of D-alanine for every L-alanine. Only about 10 percent of the total alanine synthesized flows into peptidoglycan.There are at least 3 ways to begin the biosynthesis of alanine. The first method for alanine biosynthesis begins with L-cysteine produced from L-cysteine biosynthesis pathway. L-cysteine reacts with an [L-cysteine desulfurase] L-cysteine persulfide through a cysteine desulfurase resulting in a release of [L-cysteine desulfurase] l-cysteine persulfide and L-alanine. The second method starts with pyruvic acid reacting with L-glutamic acid through a glutamate-pyruvate aminotransferase resulting in a oxoglutaric acid and L-alanine. The third method starts with L-glutamic acid interacting with Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid through a valine transaminase resulting in an oxoglutaric acid and L-valine. L-valine reacts with pyruvic acid through a valine-pyruvate aminotransferase resulting Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid and L-alanine. This first step of the pathway, which can be catalyzed by either of two racemases (biosynthetic or catabolic), also serves an essential role in biosynthesis because its product, D-alanine, is an essential component of cell wall peptidoglycan (murein). D-alanine is metabolized by an ATP driven D-alanine ligase A and B resulting in D-alanyl-D-alanine. This product is incorporated into the peptidoglycan biosynthesis. L-alanine is metabolized with alanine racemase, either catabolic or metabolic resulting in a D-alanine. This compound reacts with water and a quinone through a D-amino acid dehydrogenase resulting in Pyruvic acid, hydroquinone and ammonium, thus entering the central metabolism and thereby can serve as a total source of carbon and energy. The role of the dadX racemase is degradative and dadX racemase can be induced by alanine and is subject to catabolite repression.

Metabolic

SMP0000854

Pw000834 View Pathway
Metabolite

Hexuronide and Hexuronate Degradation

Escherichia coli
Beta-D-glucuronosides, D-glucuronate and D-fructuronate can be used as a source of carbon for E.coli. They are imported into E.coli's periplasmic space by membrane-associated protein (UidC/gusC), and are further imported into cytoplasm by hydrogen symporter. Beta-glucuronides undergoes hydrolysis by beta-D-glucuronidase to form D-glucuronate. D-glucuronate is isomerized by D-glucuronate isomerase to form D-fructuronate. D-fructuronate is further reduced to D-mannonate by D-mannonate oxidoreductase. D-mannonate dehydratase dehydrated to yield 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate. At this point, a common enzyme, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconokinase, phosphorylates 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate to yield 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate-6-phosphate. This product is then process by KHG/KDPG aldolase which in turn produces D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and Pyruvic Acid which then go into their respective sub pathways: glycolysis and pyruvate dehydrogenase. The pathway can also start from 3 other points: a hydrogen ion symporter (gluconate/fructuronate transporter GntP) of D-fructuronate, a hydrogen ion symporter (Hexuronate transporter) of aldehydo-D-galacturonate that spontaneously turns into D-tagaturonate. This compound can also be obtained by the reaction of aldehydo-L-galactonate with a NAD dependent l-galactonate oxidoreductase resulting in the release of NADH, hydrogen ion. Tagaturonate then undergoes an NADH-dependent reduction to D-altronate through an altronate oxidoreductase. D-altronate undergoes dehydration to yield 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, the third and last point where the reaction can start from a hydrogen symporter of a 2-dehydro-3-deoy-D-gluconate.

Metabolic

SMP0000792

Pw000769 View Pathway
Metabolite

D-Glutamine and D-Glutamate Metabolism

Escherichia coli
L-Glutamine is transported into the cytoplasm through a glutamine ABC transporter. Once inside, L-glutamine is metabolized with glutaminase to produce an L-glutamic acid. This process can be reversed through a glutamine synthetase resulting in L-glutamine. L-glutamic acid can also be transported into the cytoplasm through various methods: a glutamate/aspartate:H+ symporter GltP, a glutamate:sodium symporter, or a glutamate/aspartate ABC transporter. L-Glutamic acid can proceed to L-glutamate metabolism or it can undergo a reversible reaction through a glutamate racemase resulting in D-glutamic acid. This compound can also be obtained from D-glutamine interacting with a glutaminase. D-Glutamic acid reacts with UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine through an ATP-driven UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine-D-glutamate ligase resulting in a UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate which is then integrated into peptidoglycan biosynthesis. UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine comes from the amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism product, UDP-N-acetylmuraminate which reacts with L-alanine through an ATP-driven UDP-N-acetylmuramate-L-alanine ligase.

Metabolic

SMP0000915

Pw000896 View Pathway
Metabolite

beta-Alanine Metabolism

Escherichia coli
Beta-Alanine metabolism starts as a product of aspartate metabolism. Aspartate is decarboxylated by aspartate 1-decarboxylase, releasing carbon dioxide and beta-alanine. Beta-Alanine is then metabolized through a pantothenate synthease resulting in pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid then undergoes phosphorylation through an ATP-driven pantothenate kinase, resulting in D-4-phosphopantothenate. Pantothenate, vitamin B5, is a precursor for synthesis of 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety of coenzyme A and acyl carrier protein. Plants and microorganisms can synthesize pantothenate de novo, but animals must obtain it from diet. Enzymes of beta-alanine metabolism are targets for anti-microbial drugs.

Metabolic

SMP0000063

Pw000163 View Pathway
Metabolite

Tryptophan Metabolism

Homo sapiens
This pathway depicts the metabolic reactions and pathways associated with tryptophan metabolism in animals. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid. This means that it cannot be synthesized by humans and other mammals and therefore must be part of the diet. Unlike animals, plants and microbes can synthesize tryptophan from shikimic acid or anthranilate. As one of the 20 proteogenic amino acids, tryptophan plays an important role in protein biosynthesis through the action of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. As shown in this pathway, tryptophan can be linked to the tryptophanyl-tRNA via either the mitochondrial or cytoplasmic tryptophan tRNA ligases. Also shown in this pathway map is the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin (a neurotransmitter). In this process, tryptophan is acted upon by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase, which produces 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP). 5HTP is then converted into serotonin (5-HT) via aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Serotonin, in turn, can be converted into N-acetyl serotonin (via serotonin-N-acetyltransferase) and then melatonin (a neurohormone), via 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. The melatonin can be converted into 6-hydroxymelatonin via the action of cytochrome P450s in the endoplasmic reticulum. Serotonin has other fates as well. As depicted in this pathway it can be converted into N-methylserotonin via Indolethylamine-N-methyltransferase (INMT) or it can be converted into formyl-5-hydroxykynurenamine via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Serotonin may also be converted into 5-methoxyindoleacetate via a series of intermediates including 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Tryptophan can be converted or broken down into many other compounds as well. It can be converted into tryptamine via the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. The resulting tryptamine can then be converted into indoleacetaldehyde via kynurenine 3-monooxygenase and then into indoleacetic acid via the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Tryptophan also leads to the production of a very important compound known as kynurenine. Kynurenine is synthesized via the action of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygnase, which produces N-formylkynurenine. This compound is converted into kynurenine via the enzyme known as kynurenine formamidase (AFMID). Kynurenine has at least 3 fates. First, kynurenine can undergo deamination in a standard transamination reaction yielding kynurenic acid. Secondly, kynurenine can undergo a series of catabolic reactions (involving kynureninase and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase) producing 3-hydroxyanthranilate plus alanine. In this reaction, kynureninase catabolizes the conversion of kynurenine into anthranilic acid while kynurenine—oxoglutarate transaminase (also known as kynurenine aminotransferase or glutamine transaminase K, GTK) catabolizes its conversion into kynurenic acid. The action of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase on kynurenic acid leads to 3-hydroxykynurenine. The oxidation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate converts it into 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde, which has two fates. It can either degrade to form acetoacetate or it can cyclize to form quinolate. Most of the body’s 3-hydroxyanthranilate leads to the production of acetoacetate (a ketone body), which is why tryptophan is also known as a ketogenic amino acid. An important side reaction in the liver involves a non-enzymatic cyclization into quinolate followed by transamination and several rearrangements to yield limited amounts of nicotinic acid, which leads to the production of a small amount of NAD+ and NADP+.

Metabolic

SMP0000048

Pw000151 View Pathway
Metabolite

Nicotinate and Nicotinamide Metabolism

Homo sapiens
Nicotinate (niacin) and nicotinamide - more commonly known as vitamin B3 - are precursors of the coenzymes nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+). NAD+ synthesis occurs either de novo from amino acids, or a salvage pathway from nicotinamide. Most organisms use the de novo pathway whereas the savage pathway is only typically found in mammals. The specifics of the de novo pathway varies between organisms, but most begin by forming quinolinic acid (QA) from tryptophan (Trp) in animals, or aspartic acid in some bacteria (intestinal microflora) and plants. Nicotinate-nucleotide pyrophosphorylase converts QA into nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) by transfering a phosphoribose group. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase then transfers an adenylate group to form nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD). Lastly, the nicotinic acid group is amidated to form a nicotinamide group, resulting in a molecule of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Additionally, NAD can be phosphorylated to form NADP. The salvage pathway involves recycling nicotinamide and nicotinamide-containing molecules such as nicotinamide riboside. The precursors are fed into the NAD+ biosynthetic pathwaythrough adenylation and phosphoribosylation reactions. These compounds can be found in the diet, where the mixture of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are called vitamin B3 or niacin. These compounds are also produced within the body when the nicotinamide group is released from NAD+ in ADP-ribose transfer reactions.

Metabolic

SMP0063480

Pw064442 View Pathway
Metabolite

Monobactam Biosynthesis

Arabidopsis thaliana
Monobactams are a group of beta-lactam antibiotics which contain a beta-lactam ring that is alone and not fused to another ring . In Arabidopsis thaliana, the monobactam biosynthesis pathway takes place in the chloroplast. Aspartokinase 1 catalyzes the conversion of L-aspartic acid with ATP into L-aspartyl-4-phosphate and ADP. With asparate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase catalyzation, L-aspartyl-4-phosphate is dephosphorylated by reaction with NADPH, and hydrogen to produce L-aspartate-semialdehyde, NADP, and phosphate. L-aspartate-semialdehyde is then reacted with pyruvic acid to produce (2S,4S)-4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinic acid and water, with catalyzation by 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate synthase. With catalyzation by 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase, (2S,4S)-4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinic acid may be dehydroxylated in reaction with hydrogen and either NADH or NADPH to produce tetrahydrodipicolinate, water, and either NAD or NADP respectively.

Metabolic
Showing 111 - 120 of 111423 pathways