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Showing 11 - 20 of 110297 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0002111

Pw002099 View Pathway
Metabolite

Cyanate Degradation

Escherichia coli
The cyanate degradation pathway begins with the transportation of cyanate into the cytosol through a cynX transporter. Once inside the cytosol cyanate reacts with hydrogen carbonate and a hydrogen ion through a cyanase resulting in the release of carbon dioxide and carbamate. Carbamate reacts spontaneously with hydrogen resulting in the release of ammonium and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide reacts with water through carbonic anhydrase resulting in the release of hydrogen ion and hydrogen carbonate.

Metabolic

SMP0121057

Pw122325 View Pathway
Metabolite

Bloch Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis)

Homo sapiens
The Bloch pathway, named after Konrad Bloch, is the pathway following the mevalonate pathway occurring within the cell to complete cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol is a necessary metabolite that helps create many essential hormones within the human body. This pathway, combined with the mevalonate pathway is one of two ways to biosynthesize cholesterol; the Kandutsch-Russell pathway is an alternative pathway that uses different compounds than the Bloch Pathway beginning after lanosterol. The first three reactions occur in the endoplasmic reticulum. Lanosterol, a compound created through the mevalonate pathway, binds with the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase to become 4,4-dimethyl-14a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Moving to the next reaction, 4,4-dimethyl-14a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol utilizes the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase to create 4,4-dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol. Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase is used one last time in this pathway, converting 4,4-dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol into 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3b-ol. Entering the inner nuclear membrane, 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3b-ol is catalyzed by a lamin B receptor to create 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol. Entering the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol, with the help of methyl monooxygenase 1 is converted to 4a-hydroxymethyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. The enzyme methyl monooxygenase 1 uses 4a-hydroxymethyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol to produce 4a-formyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. This reaction is repeated once more, using 4a-formyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol and methyl monooxygenase 1 to create 4a-carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Briefly entering the endoplasmic reticulum, 4a-carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol then uses sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate-3-dehyrogenase to catalyze into 3-keto-4-methylzymosterol. Back in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, where the pathway will continue on for the remaining reactions, 3-keto-4-methylzymosterol combines with 3-keto-steroid reductase to create 4a-methylzymosterol. 4a-Methylzymosterol joins the enzyme methylsterol monooxgenase 1 to result in 4a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. 4a-Hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol uses methylsterol monooxygenase 1 to convert to 4a-formyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. 4a-Formyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol proceeds to use the same enzyme used in the previous reaction: methylsterol monooxygenase 1, to catalyze into 4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate-3-dehydrogenase is used alongside 4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol to produce 5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-one (also known as zymosterone). Zymosterone (5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-one) teams up with 3-keto-steroid reductase to create zymosterol. Zymosterol proceeds to use the enzyme 3-beta-hydroxysteroid-delta(8),delta(7)-isomerase to catalyze into 5a-cholesta-7,24-dien-3b-ol. The compound 5a-cholesta-7,24-dien-3b-ol then joins lathosterol oxidase to convert to 7-dehydrodesmosterol. 7-Dehydrodesmosterol and the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase come together to create desmosterol. This brings the pathway to the final reaction, where desmosterol combines with delta(24)-sterol reductase to finally convert to cholesterol.

Metabolic

SMP0121209

Pw122503 View Pathway
Metabolite

Mevalonate Pathway

Arabidopsis thaliana
The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway, plays an essential role in creating the chemicals needed for many plants to function. This pathway, combined with the MEP/DOXP pathway give many plants their scents, such as cinnamon and ginger, and are responsible for the red colour in tomatoes. The pathway begins with acetyl-CoA, having come from the glycolysis pathway. Acetyl-CoA immediately becomes acetoacetyl-CoA through the enzyme acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1/2. Combined, acetoacetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA react with hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase to create 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-CoA. From here, this compound is catalyzed by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 1 and becomes (R)-mevalonate. Mevalonate is paired with mevalonate kinase to produce mevalonic acid-5P. In turn, mevalonic acid-5P reacts with phosphomevalonate kinase, and entering the peroxisome and becoming (R)-mevalonic acid-5-pyrophosphate. Remaining in the peroxisome, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase MVD1 is used alongside (R)-mevalonic acid-5-pyrophosphate to create isopentenyl pyrophosphate, bringing the pathway into the chloroplast. Dimethylallylpyrophosphate is produced after isopentenyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate delta-isomerase II team up to catalyze it. Dimethylallylpyrophosphate then joins forces with isopentenyl again, this time adding geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase 6 and moving into the mitochondria to produce geranyl-PP. This is followed by monoterpenoid biosynthesis.

Metabolic

SMP0002439

Pw002549 View Pathway
Metabolite

Methionine Metabolism

Arabidopsis thaliana
The methionine metabolism starts from aspartate-produced homoserine. Homoserine reacts with HSK resulting in the release of O-phospho-L-homoserine. The latter compound interacts with cysteine through CGS resulting in the release of phosphate and cystathionine. The latter compound reacts with COI3 resulting in the release of 2-aminoprop-2-enoate, hydrogen ion and homocysteine. Homocysteine can react with S-adenosyl-L-methionine through a HMT protein complex resulting in the release of methionine. Methionine can be used to generate S-adenosyl-L-methionine or it can generate oxobutanoate

Metabolic

SMP0000051

Pw000023 View Pathway
Metabolite

Fatty Acid Metabolism

Homo sapiens
Fatty acids constitute a large energy source for the body. The cellular membrane is also made up of fatty acids. During starvation times, fatty acids can provide energy to humans for numerous days. Fatty acid metabolism is also known as beta-oxidation. During metabolism, acetyl CoA is produced that can then enter the citric acid cycle. When ATP is needed, ATP may be generated by increasing fatty acid metabolism. Fatty acid metabolism is essentially the reverse reaction of fatty acid synthesis.

Metabolic

SMP0000009

Pw000009 View Pathway
Metabolite

Ammonia Recycling

Homo sapiens
Ammonia can be rerouted from the urine and recycled into the body for use in nitrogen metabolism. Glutamate and glutamine play an important role in this process. There are many other processes that act to recycle ammonia. asparaginase recycles ammonia from asparagine. Glycine cleavage system generates ammonia from glycine. Histidine ammonia lyase forms ammonia from histidine. Serine dehydratase also produces ammonia by cleaving serine.

Metabolic

SMP0000071

Pw000028 View Pathway
Metabolite

Ketone Body Metabolism

Homo sapiens
Ketone bodies are consisted of acetone, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. In liver cells' mitochondria, acetyl-CoA can synthesize acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate; and spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate will form acetone. Metabolism of ketone body (also known as ketogenesis) contains several reactions. Acetoacetic acid (acetoacetate) will be catalyzed to form acetoacetyl-CoA irreversibly by 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase 1 that also coupled with interconversion of succinyl-CoA and succinic acid. Acetoacetic acid can also be catalyzed by mitochondrial D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase to form (R)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid with NADH. Ketogenesis occurs mostly during fasting and starvation. Stored fatty acids will be broken down and mobilized to produce large amount of acetyl-CoA for ketogenesis in liver, which can reduce the demand of glucose for other tissues. Acetone cannot be converted back to acetyl-CoA; therefore, they are either breathed out through the lungs or excreted in urine.

Metabolic

SMP0000456

Pw000167 View Pathway
Metabolite

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

Homo sapiens
The biosynthesis of fatty acids primarily occurs in liver and lactating mammary glands. The entire synthesis process which produces palmitic acid occurs on a multifunctional dimeric protein Fatty Acid Synthase (FA) in the cytosol. The production of palmitic acid can be summarized as the successive addition of two carbons to an initial acetyl moiety primer. After 7 cycles palimitic acid is released. The synthesis starts with the sequential transfer of a primer substrate, acetyl-CoA, to the nucleophilic serine residue of the acyltransferase domain of FA. The acetyl moiety is then transferred to the Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) domain of FA, then finally to the active site of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain. A chain extender substrate, molonyl-CoA, is transferred to the nucleophilic serine residue of the acyltransferase domain and subsequently to the ACP domain. The acetyl moiety is extend by a condensation reaction, catalysed by the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain, that produces a new Carbon-Carbon bound, this reaction is coupled to a decarboxylation resulting in the production of carbon dioxide. Subsequently beta-ketoacyl condensation product is reduced to a saturated acyl moiety through the step wise action on the beta-ketoacyl reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl dehydrase and enoyl reductase domains respectively. This saturated acyl moiety is then transfer back to the active site of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain, another molonyl-CoA is loaded and the process repeats. The addition of molonyl moieties occurs 7 times after which the final product is released by that action of thioesterase domain. The final product is 16 carbon long palmitic acid.

Metabolic

SMP0012071

Pw012933 View Pathway
Metabolite

Gibberellin Biosynthesis III (Non C-3, Non C-13 Hydroxylation)

Arabidopsis thaliana
Gibberellins (GAs) are a large class of tetracyclic diterpenoid plant hormones that regulate numerous growth and developmental processes, such as seed germination, organ elongation, and flowering induction. All known gibberellins share an ent-gibberellane skeleton and follow the same synthesis pathway. Biosynthesis begins in the plasmids via the terpenoid pathway and finishes in the endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol where they undergo modification until a biologically-active form is reached (GA1, GA3, GA4, or GA7). Gibberellins are named in the order that they are discovered (GA1 through GAn). Gibberellin biosynthesis via non C-3, non C-13 hydroxylation occurs in the cytosol and converts the inactive GA12 to the active GA4, and inactive GA36 and GA13. The first two reactions are catalyzed by gibberellin 20-oxidase, requiring Fe2+ and L-ascorbate as cofactors. It first converts gibberellin A12 into gibberellin A15 and then into gibberellin A24. Gibberellin A24 has three different fates. The first route involves the conversion of gibberellin A24 into gibberellin A9 by gibberellin 20-oxidase and then the subsequent conversion of gibberellin A9 into the active gibberellin A4 by gibberellin 3-oxidase. It requires Fe2+ and L-ascorbate as cofactors. The second route involves the conversion of gibberellin A24 into gibberellin A36 by gibberellin 3-oxidase. The third route involves the conversion of gibberellin A24 into gibberellin A25 by gibberellin 20-oxidase and then the subsequent conversion of gibberellin A25 into gibberellin A13 by a not yet elucidated gibberellin oxidase (coloured orange in the image).

Metabolic

SMP0012076

Pw012938 View Pathway
Metabolite

Phenolic Malonylglucosides Biosynthesis

Arabidopsis thaliana
Naphthols, harmful phenolic foreign compounds encountered by plants in the soil, must be modified to lower their toxicity. A yet unelucidated phenol beta-glucosyltransferase (coloured orange in the image) in Arabidopsis thaliana glucosylates napthtols (e.g. 2-naphthol into 2-naphthol glucoside, 1-naphthol into 1-naphthol glucoside). Glucosylation may then be followed by malonylation catalyzed by phenolic glucoside malonyltransferase ( e.g. 4-methylumbelliferyl glucoside into 4-methylumbelliferone 6'-O-malonylglucoside, 2-naphthol glucoside into 2-naphthol 6'-O-malonylglucoside, and 1-naphthol glucoside into 1-naphthol 6'-O-malonylglucoside). Unlike the excreted glucosides, the malonylated compounds are retained within vacuoles.

Metabolic
Showing 11 - 20 of 110297 pathways