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Showing 31 - 40 of 110297 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0000932

Pw000915 View Pathway
Metabolite

Glycerol Metabolism II

Escherichia coli
Glycerol metabolism starts with glycerol is introduced into the cytoplasm through a glycerol channel GlpF Glycerol is then phosphorylated through an ATP mediated glycerol kinase resulting in a Glycerol 3-phosphate. This compound can also be obtained through sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine reacting with water through a glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase producing a benzyl alcohol, a hydrogen ion and a glycerol 3-phosphate or the campound can be introduced into the cytoplasm through a glycerol-3-phosphate:phosphate antiporter. Glycerol 3-phosphate is then metabolized into a dihydroxyacetone phosphate in both aerobic or anaerobic conditions. In anaerobic conditions the metabolism is done through the reaction of glycerol 3-phosphate with a menaquinone mediated by a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein complex. In aerobic conditions, the metabolism is done through the reaction of glycerol 3-phosphate with ubiquinone mediated by a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(P]+]. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate is then introduced into the fructose metabolism by turning a dihydroxyacetone into an isomer through a triosephosphate isomerase resulting in a D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate which in turn reacts with a phosphate through a NAD dependent Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase resulting in a glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate. This compound is desphosphorylated by a phosphoglycerate kinase resulting in a 3-phosphoglyceric acid.This compound in turn can either react with a 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase or a 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase resulting in a 2-phospho-D-glyceric acid. This compound interacts with an enolase resulting in a phosphoenolpyruvic acid and water. Phosphoenolpyruvic acid can react either through a AMP driven phosphoenoylpyruvate synthase or a ADP driven pyruvate kinase protein complex resulting in a pyruvic acid. Pyruvic acid reacts with CoA through a NAD driven pyruvate dehydrogenase complex resulting in a carbon dioxide and a Acetyl-CoA which gets incorporated into the TCA cycle pathway.

Metabolic

SMP0000993

Pw000977 View Pathway
Metabolite

Secondary Metabolites: Cysteine Biosynthesis from Serine

Escherichia coli
The pathway starts with a 3-phosphoglyceric acid interacting with an NAD driven D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase / α-ketoglutarate reductase resulting in an NADH, a hydrogen ion and a phosphohydroxypyruvic acid. This compound then interacts with an L-glutamic acid through a 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase / phosphohydroxythreonine aminotransferase resulting in a oxoglutaric acid and a DL-D-phosphoserine. The latter compound then interacts with a water molecule through a phosphoserine phosphatase resulting in a phosphate and an L-serine. The L-serine interacts with an acetyl-coa through a serine acetyltransferase resulting in a release of a Coenzyme A and a O-Acetylserine. The O-acetylserine then interacts with a hydrogen sulfide through a O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase A resulting in an acetic acid, a hydrogen ion and an L-cysteine

Metabolic

SMP0000927

Pw000910 View Pathway
Metabolite

Purine Nucleotides De Novo Biosynthesis

Escherichia coli
The biosynthesis of purine nucleotides is a complex process that begins with a phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate. This compound interacts with water and L-glutamine through a amidophosphoribosyl transferase resulting in a pyrophosphate, L-glutamic acid and a 5-phosphoribosylamine. The latter compound proceeds to interact with a glycine through an ATP driven phosphoribosylamine-glycine ligase resulting in the addition of glycine to the compound. This reaction releases an ADP, a phosphate, a hydrogen ion and a N1-(5-phospho-β-D-ribosyl)glycinamide. The latter compound interacts with formic acid, through an ATP driven phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase 2 resulting in a phosphate, an ADP, a hydrogen ion and a 5-phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide. The latter compound interacts with L-glutamine, and water through an ATP-driven phosphoribosylformylglycinamide synthetase resulting in a release of a phosphate, an ADP, a hydrogen ion, a L-glutamic acid and a 2-(formamido)-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine. The latter compound interacts with an ATP driven phosphoribosylformylglycinamide cyclo-ligase resulting in a release of ADP, a phosphate, a hydrogen ion and a 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide. The latter compound interacts with a hydrogen carbonate through an ATP driven N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase resulting in a release of a phosphate, an ADP, a hydrogen ion and a N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide.The latter compound then interacts with a N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide mutase resulting in a 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate. This compound interacts with an L-aspartic acid through an ATP driven phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthase resulting in a phosphate, an ADP, a hydrogen ion and a SAICAR. SAICAR interacts with an adenylosuccinate lyase resulting in a fumaric acid and an AICAR. AICAR interacts with a formyltetrahydrofolate through a AICAR transformylase / IMP cyclohydrolase resulting in a release of a tetrahydropterol mono-l-glutamate and a FAICAR. The latter compound, FAICAR, interacts in a reversible reaction through a AICAR transformylase / IMP cyclohydrolase resulting in a release of water and Inosinic acid. Inosinic acid can be metabolized to produce dGTP and dATP three different methods each. dGTP: Inosinic acid, water and NAD are processed by IMP dehydrogenase resulting in a release of NADH, a hydrogen ion and Xanthylic acid. Xanthylic acid interacts with L-glutamine, and water through an ATP driven GMP synthetase resulting in pyrophosphate, AMP, L-glutamic acid, a hydrogen ion and Guanosine monophosphate. The latter compound is the phosphorylated by reacting with an ATP driven guanylate kinase resulting in a release of ADP and a Gaunosine diphosphate. Guanosine diphosphate can be metabolized in three different ways: 1.-Guanosine diphosphate is phosphorylated by an ATP-driven nucleoside diphosphate kinase resulting in an ADP and a Guanosine triphosphate. This compound interacts with a reduced flavodoxin protein through a ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase resulting in a oxidized flavodoxin a water moleculer and a dGTP 2.-Guanosine diphosphate interacts with a reduced NrdH glutaredoxin-like proteins through a ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase 2 resulting in the release of an oxidized NrdH glutaredoxin-like protein, a water molecule and a dGDP. The dGDP is then phosphorylated by interacting with an ATP-driven nucleoside diphosphate kinase resulting in an ADP and dGTP. 3.-Guanosine diphosphate interacts with a reduced thioredoxin ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase 1 resulting in a release of a water molecule, an oxidized thioredoxin and a dGDP. The dGDP is then phosphorylated by interacting with an ATP-driven nucleoside diphosphate kinase resulting in an ADP and dGTP. dATP: Inosinic acid interacts with L-aspartic acid through an GTP driven adenylosuccinate synthase results in the release of GDP, a hydrogen ion, a phosphate and N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMP. The latter compound is then cleaved by a adenylosuccinate lyase resulting in a fumaric acid and an Adenosine monophosphate. This compound is then phosphorylated by an adenylate kinase resulting in the release of ATP and an adenosine diphosphate. Adenosine diphosphate can be metabolized in three different ways: 1.-Adenosine diphosphate is involved in a reversible reaction by interacting with a hydrogen ion and a phosphate through a ATP synthase / thiamin triphosphate synthase resulting in a hydrogen ion, a water molecule and an Adenosine triphosphate. The adenosine triphosphate interacts with a reduced flavodoxin through a ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase resulting in an oxidized flavodoxin, a water molecule and a dATP 2.- Adenosine diphosphate interacts with an reduced thioredoxin through a ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase 1 resulting in a release of a water molecule, a oxidized thioredoxin and a dADP. The dADP is then phosphorylated by a nucleoside diphosphate kinase resulting in the release of ADP and a dATP 3.- Adenosine diphosphate interacts with an reduced NrdH glutaredoxin-like protein through a ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase 2 resulting in a release of a water molecule, a oxidized glutaredoxin-like protein and a dADP. The dADP is then phosphorylated by a nucleoside diphosphate kinase resulting in the release of ADP and a dATP

Metabolic

SMP0000820

Pw000799 View Pathway
Metabolite

tRNA Charging

Escherichia coli
This pathway is a compilation of Escherichia coli tRNA charging reactions involving amino acids transported into the cell. The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA by catalyzing the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA, which plays an important role in RNA translation. 20 different Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases can make 20 different types of aa-tRNA for each amino acid according to the genetic code. This process is called "charging" or "loading" the tRNA with amino acid. Ribosome can transfer the amino acid from tRNA to a growing peptide after the tRNA is charged.

Metabolic

SMP0000841

Pw000821 View Pathway
Metabolite

Galactose Metabolism

Escherichia coli
Galactose can be synthesized through two pathways: melibiose degradation involving an alpha galactosidase and lactose degradation involving a beta galactosidase. Melibiose is first transported inside the cell through the melibiose:Li+/Na+/H+ symporter. Once inside the cell, melibiose is degraded through alpha galactosidase into an alpha-D-galactose and a beta-D-glucose. The beta-D-glucose is phosphorylated by a glucokinase to produce a beta-D-glucose-6-phosphate which can spontaneously be turned into a alpha D glucose 6 phosphate. This alpha D-glucose-6-phosphate is metabolized into a glucose -1-phosphate through a phosphoglucomutase-1. The glucose -1-phosphate is transformed into a uridine diphosphate glucose through UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. The product, uridine diphosphate glucose, can undergo a reversible reaction in which it can be turned into uridine diphosphategalactose through an UDP-glucose 4-epimerase. Galactose can also be produced by lactose degradation involving a lactose permease to uptake lactose from the environment and a beta-galactosidase to turn lactose into Beta-D-galactose. Beta-D-galactose can also be uptaken from the environment through a galactose proton symporter. Galactose is degraded through the following process: Beta-D-galactose is introduced into the cytoplasm through a galactose proton symporter, or it can be synthesized from an alpha lactose that is introduced into the cytoplasm through a lactose permease. Alpha lactose interacts with water through a beta-galactosidase resulting in a beta-D-glucose and beta-D-galactose. Beta-D-galactose is isomerized into D-galactose. D-Galactose undergoes phosphorylation through a galactokinase, hence producing galactose 1 phosphate. On the other side of the pathway, a gluose-1-phosphate (product of the interaction of alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate with a phosphoglucomutase resulting in a alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate, an isomer of Glucose 1-phosphate, or an isomer of Beta-D-glucose 1-phosphate) interacts with UTP and a hydrogen ion in order to produce a uridine diphosphate glucose. This is followed by the interaction of galactose-1-phosphate with an established amount of uridine diphosphate glucose through a galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, which in turn output a glucose-1-phosphate and a uridine diphosphate galactose. The glucose -1-phosphate is transformed into a uridine diphosphate glucose through UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. The product, uridine diphosphate glucose, can undergo a reversible reaction in which it can be turned into uridine diphosphategalactose through an UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, and so the cycle can keep going as long as more lactose or galactose is imported into the cell

Metabolic

SMP0000834

Pw000814 View Pathway
Metabolite

Methionine Biosynthesis

Escherichia coli
This pathway shows the biosynthesis of methionine, which is an energy-costly process. Lysine biosynthesis produces L-Aspartate-semialdehyde, which later on is catalyzed to L-homoserine by bifunctional aspartokinase (also named homoserine dehydrogenase) 1 and 2. Homoserine is then activated by O-succinylation to form O-succinyl-L-homoserine via homoserine O-succinyltransferase (metA). Combining with L-cysteine, O-succinyl-L-homoserine form L-cystathionine and succinic acid by cystathionine gamma-synthase (metB). Cleavage of L-cystathionine by cystathionine beta-lyase (metC) or Protein MalY(as ) generates two small molecules: homocysteine and 2-aminoprop-2-enoate. Methionine synthase(MetH) or 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine methyltransferase(MetE) will catalyzehomocysteine to form the final product: methionine. In E.coli, MetH can only function with existence of cobalamin (Vitamin B12), which can be available in the guy; without cobalamin, MetE will not be repressed so that it will catalyze the methionine. Methionine can be transported out of cell (into periplasmic space) by leucine efflux transporter.

Metabolic

SMP0002368

Pw002467 View Pathway
Metabolite

Fatty Acid Elongation In Mitochondria

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Cells typically contain large amounts of C18 and C20 fatty acids. Longer chain fatty acids are derived from either dietary sources or from elongation of C16-CoA or C18-CoA formed by the cytoplasmic fatty acid synthetase system. All of the fatty acids needed can be synthesized from palmitate (C16:0) except the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleate and linolenate. To create longer, shorter, oxidized, reduced fatty acids, palmitic acid is subjected to enzymatic reactions by reductases, hydroxylases, elongases and mixed function oxidases. There are 3 major processes that modify palmitic acid: elongation, desaturation, and hydroxylation. Elongation of fatty acids may occur at endoplasmic reticulum where fatty acid molecules of length up to C24 may be produced. Mitochondrial elongation may result in fatty acids up to C16 in length. Fatty acid elongation in mitochondria is essentially the reverse of beta-oxidation for fatty acid oxidation. In particular, both pathways make use of acetyl-CoA acyltransferase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and enoyl-CoA hydratase. The final step of fatty acid elongation uses enoyl-CoA reductase (not part of the beta-oxidation pathway). The mitochondrial pathway is important for elongating fatty acids containing 14 or fewer carbon atoms. Fatty acids with aliphatic tails of less than six carbons are short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Medium chains (MCFA) have a six to twelve carbon tail and large chains (LCFA) have a tail with greater than twelve carbons. Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) have a tail with greater than twenty-two carbons.

Metabolic

SMP0002392

Pw002493 View Pathway
Metabolite

Glycerophospholipid Metabolism

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The metabolism of glycerophospholipid begins with glycerone phosphate either reacting with glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase resulting in the release of glycerol-3-phosphate or it can react with glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase / dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase resulting in the release of a 1-acylglycerone 3-phosphate. Glycerol-3-phosphate reacts with glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase resulting in the release of an acyl glycerol phosphate. 1-acylglycerone 3-phosphate 1-acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase resulting in the release of a acyl glycerol phosphate. The latter compound then reacts with a oleoyl-CoA: lysophosphatidate acyltransferase resulting in the release of a phosphatidic acid. The latter compound reacts with Phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase 1 resulting in the release of diacyl glycerol. This compound can be metabolized through a CTP-dependent diacylglycerol kinase 1 resulting in the release of a phosphatidic acid. Diacyl glycerol reacts with cdp-ethanolamine through a bifunctional diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase/ethanolaminephosphotransferase resulting in the release of a phosphatidyl ethanolamine.

Metabolic

SMP0002397

Pw002498 View Pathway
Metabolite

Inositol Metabolism

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Inositol (also known as myo-inositol) is a carbocyclic polyol that can be found in many food such as nuts and beans. Inositol (e.g. inositol phosphates, etc.) can act as secondary messengers in eukaryotic cells. Inositol can be synthesized from three resources: inositol monophosphatase 1 can catalyze D-Myo-inositol 4-phosphate, myo-inositol 1-phosphate and 1D-myo-Inositol 3-phosphate to form inositol with water as cofactor.

Metabolic

SMP0002400

Pw002501 View Pathway
Metabolite

N-Glycan Biosynthesis

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The N-glycan biosynthesis is a pathway involving the creation of a dolichol, and the consecutive reactions involving the addition of Acetylglucosaminyl groups, mannosyl groups and glucosyl groups. The set of reactions all happen in the ER membrane. The resulting glucosyl3mannosyl9-N-acetylglucosaminyl2-diphosphodolichol is used as protein modificator.

Metabolic
Showing 31 - 40 of 110297 pathways