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Showing 41 - 50 of 605359 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Name and Description Pathway Class Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0002063

Pw002049 View Pathway

Fructoselysine and Psicoselysine Degradation

Escherichia coli
Fructosamines are compounds that result from glycation reactions between a sugar and a primary amine, followed by isomerization via the Amadori rearrangement. In fructoselysine degradation, fructoselysine firstly converts to 1-[(5-Amino-5-carboxypentyl)amino]-1-deoxyfructose by protein frlC, and then 1-[(5-Amino-5-carboxypentyl)amino]-1-deoxyfructose is transformed to fructoselysine-6-phosphate by fructoselysine kinase which is powered by ATP. Fructoselysine-6-phosphate finally degrades to β-D-Glucose 6-phosphate and L-lysine by fructoselysine 6-phosphate deglycase.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0002087

Pw002075 View Pathway

Citrate Lyase Activation

Escherichia coli
The citrate lyase activation starts with a 3-dephospho-CoA reacting with ATP and a hydrogen ion through a triphosphoribosyl-dephospho-CoA synthase resulting in a adenine and a 2'-(5'-triphospho-alpha-D-ribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA. The latter compound in turn reacts with with a citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein through a apo-citrate lyase phosphoribosyl-dephospho-CoA transferase resulting in the release of a pyrophosphate and a hydrogen ion and a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein.This protein complex can either react with a hydrogen ion and a acetate resulting in the release of a water and an acetyl-holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein. The holo acyl-carrier protein creacts with an ATP and an acetate through a citrate lyase synthase resulting in the release of an AMP, a pyrophosphate and an acetyl-holo citrate lyase acyl-ccarrier protein. The holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein can also interact with an S-acetyl phosphopantethiene resulting in the release of a 4-phosphopantethiene and an acetyl-holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0002425

Pw002532 View Pathway

Lysolipid Incorporation into ER

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Lysolipids such as lysophosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylinositol get transported into the cell through a phospholipid ATPase. Once in the cytosol they are incorporated into the ER membrane through a Ale1p transport membrane where phosphatidylcholine is generated.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0002343

Pw002431 View Pathway

Cardiolipin Biosynthesis

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The biosynthesis of cardiolipin (CL) begins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Glycerone phosphate interacts with an NADPH resulting in the release of NADP and glycerol 3-phosphate. Glycerol 3-phosphate reacts with glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase resulting in the release of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid or LysoPA). The resulting compound reacts with an acyl-CoA via lysophosphatidate acyltransferase, resulting in the release of a phosphatidic acid (PA or 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate). Phosphatidic acid is transported to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Once in, it gets transported into the mitochondrial inner membrane. The phosphatidic acid reacts with cytidine triphosphate through a phosphatidate cytidyltransferase resulting in the release of a CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DG). The resulting compound reacts with a glycerol 3-phosphate through a CDP-diacylglycerol-glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase resulting in the release of cytidine monophosphate and phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP). PGP reacts with phosphatidylglycerophosphatase GEP4 resulting in the release of phosphatidylglycerol (PG). PG reacts with a CDP-DG through a cardiolipin synthase resulting in the release of CL and cytidine monophosphate. Cardiolipin remodelling begins with the removal of an acyl chain to form 1-monolysocardiolipin (1-MLCL) via the lipase Cld1p. This is followed by the enzyme Taz1p transferring an acyl chain from a phospholipid (e.g. phosphatidylcholine) to reform cardiolipin.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0002469

Pw002695 View Pathway

Triacylglycerol Metabolism

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids. The biosynthesis of triacylglycerol is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and starts with glycerol 3-phosphate reacting with acyl-CoA through a glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase resulting in the release of LPA. This, in turn, reacts with an acyl-CoA through a lipase complex resulting in the release of CoA and phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid reacts with water through a phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase 1 resulting in the release of a phosphate and a diacylglycerol. This reaction can be reversed through a CTP-dependent diacylglycerol kinase. The diacylglycerol reacts in the endoplasmic reticulum with an acyl-CoA through a diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase resulting in the release of coenzyme A and a triacylglycerol. Triacylglycerol metabolism begins with a reaction with water through lipase resulting in the release of a fatty acid, hydrogen ion, and a diacylglycerol. Diacylglycerol then reacts with a lipase 3 resulting in the release of a fatty acid and a monoacylglycerol. Monoacylglycerol reacts with monoglyceride lipase resulting in the release of a fatty acid in glycerol.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0080852

Pw081868 View Pathway

Cardiolipin Biosynthesis

Arabidopsis thaliana
Cardiolipin (CL) is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane, and it is essential for the optimal function of numerous enzymes that are involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism . Cardiolipin biosynthesis occurs mainly in the mitochondria. All membrane-localized enzymes are coloured dark green in the image. First, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (or glycerone phosphate) from glycolysis is used by the chloroplastic enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)] to synthesize sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. Second, the mitochondrial enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase esterifies an acyl-group to the sn-1 position of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to form 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid or LPA). Third, the enzyme 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase converts LPA into phosphatidic acid (PA or 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate) by esterifying an acyl-group to the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. PA is then transferred to the inner mitochondrial membrane to continue cardiolipin synthesis. Fourth, magnesium-dependent phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase catalyzes the conversion of PA into CDP-diacylglycerol. Fifth, CDP-diacylglycerol--glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase synthesizes phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP). Sixth, phosphatidylglycerophosphatase and protein-tyrosine phosphatase dephosphorylates PGP to form phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Last, cardiolipin synthase catalyzes the synthesis of cardiolipin by transferring a phosphatidyl group from a second CDP-diacylglycerol to PG. It requires a divalent metal cation cofactor.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0000051

Pw000023 View Pathway

Fatty Acid Metabolism

Homo sapiens
Fatty acids constitute a large energy source for the body. The cellular membrane is also made up of fatty acids. During starvation times, fatty acids can provide energy to humans for numerous days. Fatty acid metabolism is also known as beta-oxidation. During metabolism, acetyl CoA is produced that can then enter the citric acid cycle. When ATP is needed, ATP may be generated by increasing fatty acid metabolism. Fatty acid metabolism is essentially the reverse reaction of fatty acid synthesis.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0000009

Pw000009 View Pathway

Ammonia Recycling

Homo sapiens
Ammonia can be rerouted from the urine and recycled into the body for use in nitrogen metabolism. Glutamate and glutamine play an important role in this process. There are many other processes that act to recycle ammonia. asparaginase recycles ammonia from asparagine. Glycine cleavage system generates ammonia from glycine. Histidine ammonia lyase forms ammonia from histidine. Serine dehydratase also produces ammonia by cleaving serine.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0000015

Pw000004 View Pathway

Glutathione Metabolism

Homo sapiens
Glutathione (GSH) is an low-molecular-weight thiol and antioxidant in various species such as plants, mammals and microbes. Glutathione plays important roles in nutrient metabolism, gene expression, etc. and sufficient protein nutrition is important for maintenance of GSH homeostasis. Glutathione is synthesized from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine sequentially by gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH synthetase. L-Glutamic acid and cysteine are synthesized to form gamma-glutamylcysteine by glutamate-cysteine ligase that is powered by ATP. Gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine can be synthesized to form glutathione by enzyme glutathione synthetase that is powered by ATP, too. Glutathione exists oxidized (GSSG) states and in reduced (GSH) state. Oxidation of glutathione happens due to relatively high concentration of glutathione within cells.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0000030

Pw000155 View Pathway

Oxidation of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids

Homo sapiens
In the majority of organisms, fatty acid degradation occurs mostly through the beta-oxidation cycle. In plants, this cycle only happens in the peroxisome, while in mammals this cycle happens in both the peroxisomes and mitochondria. Unfortunately, traditional fatty acid oxidation does not work for branched-chain fatty acids, or fatty acids that do not have an even number of carbons, like the fatty acid phytanic acid, found in animal milk. This acid can not be oxidized through beta-oxidation, as problems arise when water is added at the branched beta-carbon. To be able to oxidize this fatty acid, the carbon is oxidized by oxygen, which removes the initial carboxyl group, which shortens the chain. Now lacking a methyl group, this chain can be beta-oxidized. Now moving to the mitochondria, there are four reactions that occur, and are repeated for each molecule of the fatty acid. Each time the cycle of these reactions is completed, the chain is relieved of two carbons, which are oxidized and are taken away by NADH and FADH2, energy carriers that collect the carbons energy. After beta-oxidation in the cycle of reactions, an acetyl-CoA unit is released and is recycled into the cycle of reactions in the mitochondria, until the chain is fully broken down into acetyl-CoA, and can enter the TCA cycle. Once in the TCA cycle, it is converted to NADH and FADH2, which in turn help move along mitochondrial ATP production. Acetyl-CoA also helps produce ketone bodies that are further converted to energy in the heart and the brain.
Metabolite
Metabolic
Showing 41 - 50 of 167268 pathways