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Last Updated: 2019-09-16
2,3-Dihydroxybenzoate, also known as 2-pyrochatechuic acid or hypogallic acid, is a phenol compound found in bacteria that can be a component of siderophores. These are compounds that strongly bind iron molecules and allow them to be taken up and used by the bacteria in cases of iron scarcity. An example of a siderophore in E. coli is enterobactin, which can be produced from 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate as part of the enterobactin biosynthesis pathway. In this pathway, chorismate, which is the product of the chorismate biosynthesis pathway, is converted to isochorismate in a reaction catalyzed by isochorismate synthase. Following this, a water molecule is added to isochorismate by isochorismatase, which then removes a pyruvic acid molecule as a byproduct, and forms (2S, 3S)-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzoate. Finally, 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoate dehydrogenase catalyzes the dehydrogenation of (2S, 3S)-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzoate into 2-pyrocatechuric acid (2,3-dihydroxybenzoate), using NAD as a cofactor. 2-Pyrocatechuric acid can then be used as a part of the enterobactin biosynthesis pathway, or it can be converted to 2-carboxymuconate by blue copper oxidase cueO.
2,3-Dihydroxybenzoate Biosynthesis References
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