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Lipoic Acid Metabolism
Last Updated: 2019-09-03
Lipoic acid metabolism starts with caprylic acid being introduced into the cytoplasm, however, no transporter has been identified yet. i) Once caprylic acid is in the cytoplasm, it can react with a holo-acp through an ATP-driven 2-acylglycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase/acyl-ACP synthetase resulting in pyrophosphate, AMP, and octanoyl-[acp]. The latter compound can also be obtained from palmitate biosynthesis. ii) Octanoyl-acp then interacts with a lipoyl-carrier protein L-lysine through an octanoyltransferase resulting in a hydrogen ion, a holo-acyl-acp, and an N6-(octanoyl)lysine. iii) N6-(octanoyl)lysine reacts with an S-adenosylmethionine, a sulfurated[sulfur carrier], and a reduced ferredoxin through a lipoate-protein ligase A, resulting in a 5-deoxyadenosine, an L-methionine, an unsulfurated [sulfur carrier], oxidized ferredoxin, and protein N6-(octanoyl)lysine. Caprylic acid can also interact with ATP and a lipoyl-carrier protein-L-lysine through a lipoate-protein ligase A resulting in an AMP, pyrophosphate, hydrogen ion, and protein N6-(octanoyl)lysine. The latter compound reacts with an S-adenosylmethionine, a sulfurated[sulfur carrier] and a reduced ferredoxin through a lipoate-protein ligase A, resulting in a 5-deoxyadenosine, an L-methionine, an unsulfurated [sulfur carrier], oxidized ferredoxin, and a protein N6-(octanoyl)lysine. R-Lipoic acid can be absorbed from the environment, as seen in studies by Morris TW. In this pathway, the lipoyl-protein ligase LplA utilizes pre-existing lipoate that has been imported from outside the cell, and thus catalyzes a salvage pathway. Lipoic acid interacts with ATP and hydrogen ion through a lipoyl-protein ligase A, resulting in a pyrophosphate and a lipoyl-AMP (lipoyl-adenylate). This compound then interacts with a lipoyl-carrier protein-L-lysine through a lipoate-protein ligase A resulting in an AMP, a hydrogen ion, and a protein N6-(lipoyl) lysine. It has been suggested that the conversion of octanoylated-domains into lipoylated ones described in this pathway may be a type of a repair pathway, activated only if the other lipoate biosynthetic pathways are malfunctioning.
Lipoic Acid Metabolism References
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