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Ketone Body Metabolism
Last Updated: 2019-08-16
Ketone bodies are consisted of acetone, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. In liver cells' mitochondria, acetyl-CoA can synthesize acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate; and spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate will form acetone. Metabolism of ketone body (also known as ketogenesis) contains several reactions. Acetoacetic acid (acetoacetate) will be catalyzed to form acetoacetyl-CoA irreversibly by 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase 1 that also coupled with interconversion of succinyl-CoA and succinic acid. Acetoacetic acid can also be catalyzed by mitochondrial D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase to form (R)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid with NADH. Ketogenesis occurs mostly during fasting and starvation. Stored fatty acids will be broken down and mobilized to produce large amount of acetyl-CoA for ketogenesis in liver, which can reduce the demand of glucose for other tissues. Acetone cannot be converted back to acetyl-CoA; therefore, they are either breathed out through the lungs or excreted in urine.
Ketone Body Metabolism References
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Zimin AV, Delcher AL, Florea L, Kelley DR, Schatz MC, Puiu D, Hanrahan F, Pertea G, Van Tassell CP, Sonstegard TS, Marcais G, Roberts M, Subramanian P, Yorke JA, Salzberg SL: A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus. Genome Biol. 2009;10(4):R42. doi: 10.1186/gb-2009-10-4-r42. Epub 2009 Apr 24.Pubmed: 19393038
Marks AR, McIntyre JO, Duncan TM, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Fleischer S: Molecular cloning and characterization of (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from human heart. J Biol Chem. 1992 Aug 5;267(22):15459-63.Pubmed: 1639787
Prasad PV, Hatefi Y: Amino acid sequences of two tryptic peptides from D(-)-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase radiolabeled at essential carboxyl and sulfhydryl groups. Biochem Int. 1986 Jun;12(6):941-8.Pubmed: 3527172
McIntyre JO, Bock HG, Fleischer S: The orientation of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Nov 2;513(2):255-67. doi: 10.1016/0005-2736(78)90178-5.Pubmed: 718894
This pathway was propagated using PathWhiz - Pon, A. et al. Pathways with PathWhiz (2015) Nucleic Acids Res. 43(Web Server issue): W552–W559.
Propagated from SMP0000071
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