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Last Updated: 2019-09-15
Thiamine, (Vitamin B1), is a compound found in many different foods such as beans, seafood, meats and yogurt. It is usually maintained by the consumption of whole grains. It is an essential part of energy metabolism. This means that thiamine helps convert carbohydrates into energy. Eating carbohydrates increases the need for this vitamin, as your body can only store about 30mg at a time due to the vitamins short half-life. Thiamine was first synthesized in 1936, which was very helpful in researching its properties in relation to beriberi, a vitamin b1 deficiency. This deficiency has been observed mainly in countries where rice is the staple food. Thiamine metabolism begins in the extracellular space, being transported by a thiamine transporter into the cell. Once in the intracellular space, thiamine is converted into thiamine pyrophosphate through the enzyme thiamin pyrophosphate kinase 1. Thiamine pyrophosphate is then converted into thiamine triphosphate, again using the enzyme thiamin pyrophosphatekinase 1. After this, thiamine triphosphate uses thiamine-triphosphatase to revert to thiamine pyrophosphate, which undergoes a reaction using cancer-related nuceloside-triphosphatase to become thiamine monophosphate. This phosphorylated form is a metabolically active form of thiamine, as are the two other compounds, derivatives of thiamine, mentioned previously. The enzymes used in this pathway both stem from the upper small intestine. Thiamine is passed mainly through urine. It is a water-soluble vitamin, which means it dissolves in water and is carried to different parts of the body but is not stored in the body.
Thiamine Metabolism References
Harhay GP, Sonstegard TS, Keele JW, Heaton MP, Clawson ML, Snelling WM, Wiedmann RT, Van Tassell CP, Smith TP: Characterization of 954 bovine full-CDS cDNA sequences. BMC Genomics. 2005 Nov 23;6:166. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-6-166.Pubmed: 16305752
Lakaye B, Makarchikov AF, Antunes AF, Zorzi W, Coumans B, De Pauw E, Wins P, Grisar T, Bettendorff L: Molecular characterization of a specific thiamine triphosphatase widely expressed in mammalian tissues. J Biol Chem. 2002 Apr 19;277(16):13771-7. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111241200. Epub 2002 Feb 4.Pubmed: 11827967
Zimin AV, Delcher AL, Florea L, Kelley DR, Schatz MC, Puiu D, Hanrahan F, Pertea G, Van Tassell CP, Sonstegard TS, Marcais G, Roberts M, Subramanian P, Yorke JA, Salzberg SL: A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus. Genome Biol. 2009;10(4):R42. doi: 10.1186/gb-2009-10-4-r42. Epub 2009 Apr 24.Pubmed: 19393038
This pathway was propagated using PathWhiz - Pon, A. et al. Pathways with PathWhiz (2015) Nucleic Acids Res. 43(Web Server issue): W552–W559.
Propagated from SMP0000076
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