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Ketone Body Metabolism
Last Updated: 2019-08-16
Ketone bodies are consisted of acetone, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. In liver cells' mitochondria, acetyl-CoA can synthesize acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate; and spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate will form acetone. Metabolism of ketone body (also known as ketogenesis) contains several reactions. Acetoacetic acid (acetoacetate) will be catalyzed to form acetoacetyl-CoA irreversibly by 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase 1 that also coupled with interconversion of succinyl-CoA and succinic acid. Acetoacetic acid can also be catalyzed by mitochondrial D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase to form (R)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid with NADH. Ketogenesis occurs mostly during fasting and starvation. Stored fatty acids will be broken down and mobilized to produce large amount of acetyl-CoA for ketogenesis in liver, which can reduce the demand of glucose for other tissues. Acetone cannot be converted back to acetyl-CoA; therefore, they are either breathed out through the lungs or excreted in urine.
Ketone Body Metabolism References
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This pathway was propagated using PathWhiz - Pon, A. et al. Pathways with PathWhiz (2015) Nucleic Acids Res. 43(Web Server issue): W552–W559.
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