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Last Updated: 2019-09-15
Alanine (L-Alanine) is an α-amino acid that is used for protein biosynthesis. Approximately 8% of human proteins have alanine in their structures. The reductive lamination of pyruvate is effected by alanine transaminase. L-Alanine can be converted to pyruvic acid by alanine aminotransferase 1 reversibly coupled with interconversion of oxoglutaric acid and L-glutamic acid. L-Alanine can also be produced by alanine-glyoxylate transaminase with coupled interconversion of glyoxylate and glycine. L-Alanine will be coupled with alanyl tRNA by alanyl-tRNA synthetase to perform protein biosynthesis. Alanine can also be used to provide energy under fasting conditions. There are two pathways that can facilitate this: (1) alanine is converted to pyruvate to synthesize glucose via the gluconeogenesis pathway in liver tissue or (2) alanine converted into pyruvate moves into the TCA cycle to be oxidized in other tissues.
Alanine Metabolism References
Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a platform for investigating biology. Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):2012-8. doi: 10.1126/science.282.5396.2012.Pubmed: 9851916
Chihade JW, Hayashibara K, Shiba K, Schimmel P: Strong selective pressure to use G:U to mark an RNA acceptor stem for alanine. Biochemistry. 1998 Jun 23;37(25):9193-202. doi: 10.1021/bi9804636.Pubmed: 9636067
Liao VH, Freedman JH: Characterization of a cadmium-inducible isoform of pyruvate carboxylase from Caenorhabditis elegans. DNA Seq. 2001;12(2):137-45.Pubmed: 11761713
Wirth M, Karaca S, Wenzel D, Ho L, Tishkoff D, Lombard DB, Verdin E, Urlaub H, Jedrusik-Bode M, Fischle W: Mitochondrial SIRT4-type proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals interact with pyruvate carboxylase and other acetylated biotin-dependent carboxylases. Mitochondrion. 2013 Nov;13(6):705-20. doi: 10.1016/j.mito.2013.02.002. Epub 2013 Feb 21.Pubmed: 23438705
This pathway was propagated using PathWhiz - Pon, A. et al. Pathways with PathWhiz (2015) Nucleic Acids Res. 43(Web Server issue): W552–W559.
Propagated from SMP0000055
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