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Showing 111421 - 111430 of 111423 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0123369

Pw124825 View Pathway
Metabolite

Acylcarnitine 3-octenoylcarnitine

Homo sapiens
3-octenoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, 3-octenoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called 3-octenoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, 3-octenoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form 3-octenoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the 3-octenoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, 3-octenoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form 3-octenoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. 3-octenoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing 3-octenoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

Metabolic

SMP0124429

Pw125885 View Pathway
Metabolite

Acylcarnitine tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoylcarnitine

Homo sapiens
Tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. First,tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoic acid is transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), where it undergoes a reaction to formtetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoyl-CoA, facilitated by the Long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA to the compound. tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoyl-CoA then enters a reaction with L-carnitine, which is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2, to form tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoylcarnitine, catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane, and as the reaction takes place, the tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoylcarnitine and CoA are catalyzed by the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. Tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoyl-CoA then enters into mitochondrial beta-oxidation to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine and CoA in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, preventing tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoyl-CoA from forming tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoylcarnitine and preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria. Malonyl-CoA can also react to form acetyl-CoA, in a reaction that removes a carbon dioxide molecule catalyzed by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase.

Metabolic

SMP0124456

Pw125912 View Pathway
Metabolite

Acylcarnitine (2E)-Glutaconylcarnitine

Homo sapiens
(2E)-Glutaconylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. First,(2E)-glutaconic acid is transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), where it undergoes a reaction to form(2E)-glutaconyl-CoA, facilitated by the Long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA to the compound. (2E)-glutaconyl-CoA then enters a reaction with L-carnitine, which is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2, to form (2E)-glutaconylcarnitine, catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane, and as the reaction takes place, the (2E)-glutaconylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, (2E)-glutaconylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (2E)-glutaconylcarnitine and CoA are catalyzed by the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (2E)-glutaconyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (2E)-Glutaconyl-CoA then enters into mitochondrial beta-oxidation to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine and CoA in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, preventing (2E)-glutaconyl-CoA from forming (2E)-glutaconylcarnitine and preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria. Malonyl-CoA can also react to form acetyl-CoA, in a reaction that removes a carbon dioxide molecule catalyzed by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase.

Metabolic
Showing 111421 - 111430 of 111423 pathways