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Showing 21 - 30 of 110297 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0000220

Pw000080 View Pathway
Metabolite

Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)

Homo sapiens
The rare genetic disorder, Xanthinuria (also referred to as xanthine oxidase deficiency) results from a deficiency of the enzyme xanthine oxidase. This enzyme deficiency causes the accumulation of: xanthine in the plasma, uric acid in serum or hypoxanthine, uric acid and xanthine in the urine. The disorder has symptoms including arthralgia, hematuria, mental retardation, stomatisis, and urolithiasis.

Disease

SMP0120717

Pw121976 View Pathway
Metabolite

Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)

Rattus norvegicus
The rare genetic disorder, Xanthinuria (also referred to as xanthine oxidase deficiency) results from a deficiency of the enzyme xanthine oxidase. This enzyme deficiency causes the accumulation of: xanthine in the plasma, uric acid in serum or hypoxanthine, uric acid and xanthine in the urine. The disorder has symptoms including arthralgia, hematuria, mental retardation, stomatisis, and urolithiasis.

Disease

SMP0120497

Pw121751 View Pathway
Metabolite

Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)

Mus musculus
The rare genetic disorder, Xanthinuria (also referred to as xanthine oxidase deficiency) results from a deficiency of the enzyme xanthine oxidase. This enzyme deficiency causes the accumulation of: xanthine in the plasma, uric acid in serum or hypoxanthine, uric acid and xanthine in the urine. The disorder has symptoms including arthralgia, hematuria, mental retardation, stomatisis, and urolithiasis.

Disease

SMP0000511

Pw000487 View Pathway
Metabolite

Wolman Disease

Homo sapiens
In Wolman's disease excessive amounts of cholesterol ester in the liver are present mainly in the macrophages of the reticuloendo- thelial system. The livler in Wiolman's disease contains triglyceride at 10 to 20 times the normal concentratlon, most of whilch is present in hepatocytes. The first case of Wolman's disease was published in 1956 by M. Wolman, M.D., reporting a case of a 2 month old girl who had been admitted to the Hadassah University Hospital. Lysosomal acid lipase/acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase (LAL/ACEH) plays an important role in cellular processing of plasma lipoproteins and thus contributes to both the homeostatic control of plasma lipoprotein levels and the prevention of cellular lipid overload. Wolman's Disease results from severely reduced levels of the enzyme lysosomal acid lipase/acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase.

Disease

SMP0120576

Pw121832 View Pathway
Metabolite

Wolman Disease

Mus musculus
In Wolman's disease excessive amounts of cholesterol ester in the liver are present mainly in the macrophages of the reticuloendo- thelial system. The livler in Wiolman's disease contains triglyceride at 10 to 20 times the normal concentratlon, most of whilch is present in hepatocytes. The first case of Wolman's disease was published in 1956 by M. Wolman, M.D., reporting a case of a 2 month old girl who had been admitted to the Hadassah University Hospital. Lysosomal acid lipase/acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase (LAL/ACEH) plays an important role in cellular processing of plasma lipoproteins and thus contributes to both the homeostatic control of plasma lipoprotein levels and the prevention of cellular lipid overload. Wolman's Disease results from severely reduced levels of the enzyme lysosomal acid lipase/acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase.

Disease

SMP0120795

Pw122056 View Pathway
Metabolite

Wolman Disease

Rattus norvegicus
In Wolman's disease excessive amounts of cholesterol ester in the liver are present mainly in the macrophages of the reticuloendo- thelial system. The livler in Wiolman's disease contains triglyceride at 10 to 20 times the normal concentratlon, most of whilch is present in hepatocytes. The first case of Wolman's disease was published in 1956 by M. Wolman, M.D., reporting a case of a 2 month old girl who had been admitted to the Hadassah University Hospital. Lysosomal acid lipase/acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase (LAL/ACEH) plays an important role in cellular processing of plasma lipoproteins and thus contributes to both the homeostatic control of plasma lipoprotein levels and the prevention of cellular lipid overload. Wolman's Disease results from severely reduced levels of the enzyme lysosomal acid lipase/acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase.

Disease

SMP0000268

Pw000311 View Pathway
Metabolite

Warfarin Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Warfarin is a drug part of the anticoagulant drug class, used to dissolve or break down blood clots. Warfarin inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1. In the endoplasmic reticulum within the liver, vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide would regularly use vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 to become reduced vitamin K (phylloquinone), and then back to vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide continually through vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase, but as warfarin inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1, this causes a decreased amount of the reduced form of vitamin K, which in turn causes a decreased coagulability of the blood. The enzyme vitamin K-dependent gamma carboxylase catalyzes precursors of prothrombin and coagulation factors VII, IX and X to prothrombin, and coagulation factors VII, IX and X. From there, these precursors and factors leave the liver cell and enter into the blood capillary bed. Once there, prothrombin is catalyzed into the protein complex prothrombinase complex which is made up of coagulation factor Xa/coagulation factor Va (platelet factor 3). These factors are joined by coagulation factor V. Through the two factors coagulation factor Xa and coagulation factor Va, thrombin is produced, which then uses fibrinogen alpha, beta, and gamma chains to create fibrin (loose). This is then turned into coagulation factor XIIIa, which is activated through coagulation factor XIII A and B chains. From here, fibrin (mesh) is produced which interacts with endothelial cells to cause coagulation. Plasmin is then created from fibrin (mesh), then joined by tissue-type plasminogen activator (reteplase) through plasminogen, and creates fibrin degradation products. These are enzymes that stay in your blood after your body has dissolved a blood clot. Coming back to the factors transported from the liver, coagulation factor X is catalyzed into a group of enzymes called the tenase complex: coagulation factor IX and coagulation factor VIIIa (platelet factor 3). This protein complex is also contributed to by coagulation factor VIII, which through prothrombin is catalyzed into coagulation factor VIIIa. From there, this protein complex is catalyzed into prothrombinase complex, the group of proteins mentioned above, contributing to the above process ending in fibrin degradation products. Another enzyme transported from the liver is coagulation factor IX which becomes coagulation factor IXa, part of the tense complex, through coagulation factor XIa. Coagulation factor XIa is produced through coagulation factor XIIa which converts coagulation XI to become coagulation factor XIa. Coagulation factor XIIa is introduced through chain of activation starting in the endothelial cell with collagen alpha-1 (I) chain, which paired with coagulation factor XII activates coagulation factor XIIa. It is also activated through plasma prekallikrein and coagulation factor XIIa which activate plasma kallikrein, which then pairs with coagulation factor XII simultaneously with the previous collagen chain pairing to activate coagulation XIIa. Lastly, the previously transported coagulation factor VII and tissue factor coming from a vascular injury work together to activate tissue factor: coagulation factor VIIa. This enzyme helps coagulation factor X catalyze into coagulation factor Xa, to contribute to the prothrombinase complex and complete the pathway.

Drug Action

SMP0087420

Pw088439 View Pathway
Metabolite

Warburg Effect

Drosophila melanogaster
The Warburg Effect refers to the phenomenon that occurs in most cancer cells where instead of generating energy with a low rate of glycolysis followed by oxidizing pyruvate via the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria, the pyruvate from a high rate of glycolysis undergoes lactic acid fermentation in the cytosol. As the Krebs cycle is an aerobic process, in normal cells lactate production is reserved for anaerobic conditions. However, cancer cells preferentially utilize glucose for lactate production via this “aerobic glycolysis”, even when oxygen is plentiful. The Warburg Effect is thought to be the result of mutations to oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. It may be an adaptation to low-oxygen environments within tumors, the result of cancer genes shutting down the mitochondria, or a mechanism to aid cell proliferation via increased glycolysis. The Warburg Effect involves numerous pathways, including growth factor stimulation, transcriptional activation, and glycolysis promotion.

Metabolic

SMP0086930

Pw087949 View Pathway
Metabolite

Warburg Effect

Mus musculus
The Warburg Effect refers to the phenomenon that occurs in most cancer cells where instead of generating energy with a low rate of glycolysis followed by oxidizing pyruvate via the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria, the pyruvate from a high rate of glycolysis undergoes lactic acid fermentation in the cytosol. As the Krebs cycle is an aerobic process, in normal cells lactate production is reserved for anaerobic conditions. However, cancer cells preferentially utilize glucose for lactate production via this “aerobic glycolysis”, even when oxygen is plentiful. The Warburg Effect is thought to be the result of mutations to oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. It may be an adaptation to low-oxygen environments within tumors, the result of cancer genes shutting down the mitochondria, or a mechanism to aid cell proliferation via increased glycolysis. The Warburg Effect involves numerous pathways, including growth factor stimulation, transcriptional activation, and glycolysis promotion.

Metabolic

SMP0087270

Pw088289 View Pathway
Metabolite

Warburg Effect

Bos taurus
The Warburg Effect refers to the phenomenon that occurs in most cancer cells where instead of generating energy with a low rate of glycolysis followed by oxidizing pyruvate via the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria, the pyruvate from a high rate of glycolysis undergoes lactic acid fermentation in the cytosol. As the Krebs cycle is an aerobic process, in normal cells lactate production is reserved for anaerobic conditions. However, cancer cells preferentially utilize glucose for lactate production via this “aerobic glycolysis”, even when oxygen is plentiful. The Warburg Effect is thought to be the result of mutations to oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. It may be an adaptation to low-oxygen environments within tumors, the result of cancer genes shutting down the mitochondria, or a mechanism to aid cell proliferation via increased glycolysis. The Warburg Effect involves numerous pathways, including growth factor stimulation, transcriptional activation, and glycolysis promotion.

Metabolic
Showing 21 - 30 of 110297 pathways