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Showing 1 - 10 of 110281 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0122535

Pw123846 View Pathway
Metabolite

Carotenoid BIosynthesis

Arabidopsis thaliana
Carotenoids are terpenoids classified as orange, red or yellow fat- soluble pigments. These are responsible for the colouring of plants, such as tomatoes. Carotenoids are also essential in photosynthesis. This pathway involves many sub-pathways, such as retinol metabolism, lutein biosynthesis, the xanthophyll cycle, and abscisic acid biosynthesis. As with other terpenoid pathways, carotenoid biosynthesis begins with geranylgeranyl-PP. This takes place in the chloroplast, and the pathway continues here for almost all the subsequent reactions. Geranylgeranyl-PP is then converted to prephytoene diphosphate by using the enzyme phytoene synthase. This enzyme continues to catalyze compounds in the next reaction, using prephytoene diphosphate to produce phytoene. Phytoene is then converted to phytofluene, using the enzyme 15-cis-phytoene desaturase. Phytofluene then uses this enzyme again to create 9-cis,9'-cis-7,7',8,8'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-carotene. From here, neurosporene is created with the help of zeta-carotene desaturase. This enzyme works again to convert neurosporene to lycopene. Lycopene uses lycopene beta cyclase to become y-Carotene, which uses the same enzyme to create b-carotene. Continuing in the chloroplast, b-carotene teams up with two enzymes, beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase 1 and protein lutein deficient 5 to produce b-cryptoxanthin. These two enzymes then convert b-cryptoxanthin to zeaxanthin. This marks the beginning of the xanthophyll cycle, which end in the creation of violaxanthin, an oxygen-containing xanthophyll. From here, abscisic acid biosynthesis begins, in the cytoplasm, and ends in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen.

Metabolic

SMP0122459

Pw123769 View Pathway
Metabolite

Rhamnolipid Biosynthesis RL(16:1(3-OH,9Z)/16:1(3-OH,9Z))

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Rhamnolipids (RL) consist of a fatty acyl moiety composed of a 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkaloid acid (HAA) and a sugar moiety composed of one or two rhamnose sugars. Rhamnolipids function as surfactants and virulence factors and are involved in biofilm formation and cell motility. The rhamnose sugar component is produced via the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway which forms dTDP-L-rhamnose from glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in five steps. First, glucose 6-phosphate is converted into glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) via the enzyme phosphoglucomutase (AlgC). Second, glucose 1-phosphate is converted into dTDP-D-glucose via the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA). Third, dTDP-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB). Fourth, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC). Fifth, dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose is converted into dTDP-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The HAA component is synthesized from 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] diverted from fatty acid biosynthesis via the enzyme 3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy)decanoate synthase (RhIA). The final step in rhamnolipid biosynthesis is the formation of the glycosidic link between the rhamnose sugar component and the HAA component. This is accomplished by two rhamnosyltransferases (RhlB and RhlC) which catalyze sequential glycosyl transfer reactions to first form mono-rhamnolipids (via RhIB) and then di-rhamnolipids (via RhIC). RHlA, RHlB, and RHlC are associated with the inner membrane.

Metabolic

SMP0122458

Pw123768 View Pathway
Metabolite

Rhamnolipid Biosynthesis RL(16:1(3-OH,9Z)/14:1(3-OH,7Z))

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Rhamnolipids (RL) consist of a fatty acyl moiety composed of a 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkaloid acid (HAA) and a sugar moiety composed of one or two rhamnose sugars. Rhamnolipids function as surfactants and virulence factors and are involved in biofilm formation and cell motility. The rhamnose sugar component is produced via the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway which forms dTDP-L-rhamnose from glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in five steps. First, glucose 6-phosphate is converted into glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) via the enzyme phosphoglucomutase (AlgC). Second, glucose 1-phosphate is converted into dTDP-D-glucose via the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA). Third, dTDP-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB). Fourth, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC). Fifth, dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose is converted into dTDP-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The HAA component is synthesized from 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] diverted from fatty acid biosynthesis via the enzyme 3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy)decanoate synthase (RhIA). The final step in rhamnolipid biosynthesis is the formation of the glycosidic link between the rhamnose sugar component and the HAA component. This is accomplished by two rhamnosyltransferases (RhlB and RhlC) which catalyze sequential glycosyl transfer reactions to first form mono-rhamnolipids (via RhIB) and then di-rhamnolipids (via RhIC). RHlA, RHlB, and RHlC are associated with the inner membrane.

Metabolic

SMP0122457

Pw123767 View Pathway
Metabolite

Rhamnolipid Biosynthesis RL(16:1(3-OH,9Z)/14:1(3-OH,5Z))

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Rhamnolipids (RL) consist of a fatty acyl moiety composed of a 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkaloid acid (HAA) and a sugar moiety composed of one or two rhamnose sugars. Rhamnolipids function as surfactants and virulence factors and are involved in biofilm formation and cell motility. The rhamnose sugar component is produced via the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway which forms dTDP-L-rhamnose from glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in five steps. First, glucose 6-phosphate is converted into glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) via the enzyme phosphoglucomutase (AlgC). Second, glucose 1-phosphate is converted into dTDP-D-glucose via the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA). Third, dTDP-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB). Fourth, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC). Fifth, dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose is converted into dTDP-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The HAA component is synthesized from 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] diverted from fatty acid biosynthesis via the enzyme 3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy)decanoate synthase (RhIA). The final step in rhamnolipid biosynthesis is the formation of the glycosidic link between the rhamnose sugar component and the HAA component. This is accomplished by two rhamnosyltransferases (RhlB and RhlC) which catalyze sequential glycosyl transfer reactions to first form mono-rhamnolipids (via RhIB) and then di-rhamnolipids (via RhIC). RHlA, RHlB, and RHlC are associated with the inner membrane.

Metabolic

SMP0122456

Pw123766 View Pathway
Metabolite

Rhamnolipid Biosynthesis RL(16:1(3-OH,9Z)/12:1(3-OH,6Z))

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Rhamnolipids (RL) consist of a fatty acyl moiety composed of a 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkaloid acid (HAA) and a sugar moiety composed of one or two rhamnose sugars. Rhamnolipids function as surfactants and virulence factors and are involved in biofilm formation and cell motility. The rhamnose sugar component is produced via the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway which forms dTDP-L-rhamnose from glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in five steps. First, glucose 6-phosphate is converted into glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) via the enzyme phosphoglucomutase (AlgC). Second, glucose 1-phosphate is converted into dTDP-D-glucose via the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA). Third, dTDP-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB). Fourth, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC). Fifth, dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose is converted into dTDP-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The HAA component is synthesized from 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] diverted from fatty acid biosynthesis via the enzyme 3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy)decanoate synthase (RhIA). The final step in rhamnolipid biosynthesis is the formation of the glycosidic link between the rhamnose sugar component and the HAA component. This is accomplished by two rhamnosyltransferases (RhlB and RhlC) which catalyze sequential glycosyl transfer reactions to first form mono-rhamnolipids (via RhIB) and then di-rhamnolipids (via RhIC). RHlA, RHlB, and RHlC are associated with the inner membrane.

Metabolic

SMP0122455

Pw123765 View Pathway
Metabolite

Rhamnolipid Biosynthesis RL(16:1(3-OH,9Z)/12:1(3-OH,5Z))

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Rhamnolipids (RL) consist of a fatty acyl moiety composed of a 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkaloid acid (HAA) and a sugar moiety composed of one or two rhamnose sugars. Rhamnolipids function as surfactants and virulence factors and are involved in biofilm formation and cell motility. The rhamnose sugar component is produced via the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway which forms dTDP-L-rhamnose from glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in five steps. First, glucose 6-phosphate is converted into glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) via the enzyme phosphoglucomutase (AlgC). Second, glucose 1-phosphate is converted into dTDP-D-glucose via the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA). Third, dTDP-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB). Fourth, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC). Fifth, dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose is converted into dTDP-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The HAA component is synthesized from 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] diverted from fatty acid biosynthesis via the enzyme 3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy)decanoate synthase (RhIA). The final step in rhamnolipid biosynthesis is the formation of the glycosidic link between the rhamnose sugar component and the HAA component. This is accomplished by two rhamnosyltransferases (RhlB and RhlC) which catalyze sequential glycosyl transfer reactions to first form mono-rhamnolipids (via RhIB) and then di-rhamnolipids (via RhIC). RHlA, RHlB, and RHlC are associated with the inner membrane.

Metabolic

SMP0122454

Pw123764 View Pathway
Metabolite

Rhamnolipid Biosynthesis RL(16:1(3-OH,9Z)/12:0(3-OH))

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Rhamnolipids (RL) consist of a fatty acyl moiety composed of a 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkaloid acid (HAA) and a sugar moiety composed of one or two rhamnose sugars. Rhamnolipids function as surfactants and virulence factors and are involved in biofilm formation and cell motility. The rhamnose sugar component is produced via the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway which forms dTDP-L-rhamnose from glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in five steps. First, glucose 6-phosphate is converted into glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) via the enzyme phosphoglucomutase (AlgC). Second, glucose 1-phosphate is converted into dTDP-D-glucose via the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA). Third, dTDP-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB). Fourth, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC). Fifth, dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose is converted into dTDP-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The HAA component is synthesized from 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] diverted from fatty acid biosynthesis via the enzyme 3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy)decanoate synthase (RhIA). The final step in rhamnolipid biosynthesis is the formation of the glycosidic link between the rhamnose sugar component and the HAA component. This is accomplished by two rhamnosyltransferases (RhlB and RhlC) which catalyze sequential glycosyl transfer reactions to first form mono-rhamnolipids (via RhIB) and then di-rhamnolipids (via RhIC). RHlA, RHlB, and RHlC are associated with the inner membrane.

Metabolic

SMP0122453

Pw123763 View Pathway
Metabolite

Rhamnolipid Biosynthesis RL(16:1(3-OH,9Z)/10:0(3-OH))

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Rhamnolipids (RL) consist of a fatty acyl moiety composed of a 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkaloid acid (HAA) and a sugar moiety composed of one or two rhamnose sugars. Rhamnolipids function as surfactants and virulence factors and are involved in biofilm formation and cell motility. The rhamnose sugar component is produced via the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway which forms dTDP-L-rhamnose from glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in five steps. First, glucose 6-phosphate is converted into glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) via the enzyme phosphoglucomutase (AlgC). Second, glucose 1-phosphate is converted into dTDP-D-glucose via the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA). Third, dTDP-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB). Fourth, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC). Fifth, dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose is converted into dTDP-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The HAA component is synthesized from 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] diverted from fatty acid biosynthesis via the enzyme 3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy)decanoate synthase (RhIA). The final step in rhamnolipid biosynthesis is the formation of the glycosidic link between the rhamnose sugar component and the HAA component. This is accomplished by two rhamnosyltransferases (RhlB and RhlC) which catalyze sequential glycosyl transfer reactions to first form mono-rhamnolipids (via RhIB) and then di-rhamnolipids (via RhIC). RHlA, RHlB, and RHlC are associated with the inner membrane.

Metabolic

SMP0122452

Pw123762 View Pathway
Metabolite

Rhamnolipid Biosynthesis RL(16:1(3-OH,9Z)/8:0(3-OH))

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Rhamnolipids (RL) consist of a fatty acyl moiety composed of a 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkaloid acid (HAA) and a sugar moiety composed of one or two rhamnose sugars. Rhamnolipids function as surfactants and virulence factors and are involved in biofilm formation and cell motility. The rhamnose sugar component is produced via the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway which forms dTDP-L-rhamnose from glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in five steps. First, glucose 6-phosphate is converted into glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) via the enzyme phosphoglucomutase (AlgC). Second, glucose 1-phosphate is converted into dTDP-D-glucose via the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA). Third, dTDP-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB). Fourth, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC). Fifth, dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose is converted into dTDP-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The HAA component is synthesized from 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] diverted from fatty acid biosynthesis via the enzyme 3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy)decanoate synthase (RhIA). The final step in rhamnolipid biosynthesis is the formation of the glycosidic link between the rhamnose sugar component and the HAA component. This is accomplished by two rhamnosyltransferases (RhlB and RhlC) which catalyze sequential glycosyl transfer reactions to first form mono-rhamnolipids (via RhIB) and then di-rhamnolipids (via RhIC). RHlA, RHlB, and RHlC are associated with the inner membrane.

Metabolic

SMP0122451

Pw123761 View Pathway
Metabolite

Rhamnolipid Biosynthesis RL(16:1(3-OH,9Z)/6:0(3-OH))

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Rhamnolipids (RL) consist of a fatty acyl moiety composed of a 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkaloid acid (HAA) and a sugar moiety composed of one or two rhamnose sugars. Rhamnolipids function as surfactants and virulence factors and are involved in biofilm formation and cell motility. The rhamnose sugar component is produced via the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway which forms dTDP-L-rhamnose from glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in five steps. First, glucose 6-phosphate is converted into glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) via the enzyme phosphoglucomutase (AlgC). Second, glucose 1-phosphate is converted into dTDP-D-glucose via the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA). Third, dTDP-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB). Fourth, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose is converted into dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC). Fifth, dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose is converted into dTDP-L-rhamnose via the enzyme dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The HAA component is synthesized from 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] diverted from fatty acid biosynthesis via the enzyme 3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy)decanoate synthase (RhIA). The final step in rhamnolipid biosynthesis is the formation of the glycosidic link between the rhamnose sugar component and the HAA component. This is accomplished by two rhamnosyltransferases (RhlB and RhlC) which catalyze sequential glycosyl transfer reactions to first form mono-rhamnolipids (via RhIB) and then di-rhamnolipids (via RhIC). RHlA, RHlB, and RHlC are associated with the inner membrane.

Metabolic
Showing 1 - 10 of 110281 pathways