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Showing 1 - 10 of 109291 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0002076

Pw002064 View Pathway
Metabolite

1,6-Anhydro-N-acetylmuramic Acid Recycling

Escherichia coli
Most bacteria, including Escherichia coli, are composed of murein which protects and stabilizes the cell wall. Over half of the murein is broken down by Escherichia coli and recycled for the next generation. The main muropeptide is GlcNAc-anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid (anhMurNAc)-l-Ala-γ-d-Glu-meso-Dap-d-Ala which enters the cytoplasm by AmpG protein. The peptide is then released from the muropeptide. 1,6-Anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid (anhMurNAc) is recycled by its conversion to N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate (GlcNAc-P). The sugar is phosphorylated by anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid kinase (AnmK) to produce MurNAc-P. Etherase cleaves MurNAc-P to produce N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate. The product can undergo further degradation or be recycled into peptidoglycan monomers. The pathway's final product is a peptidoglycan biosynthesis precursor, UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-muramate. The enzyme muropeptide ligase (mpl), attaches the recovered Ala-Glu-DAP tripeptide to the precursor UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-muramate to return to the peptide to the peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway to synthesize the cell wall.

Metabolic

SMP0000575

Pw000551 View Pathway
Metabolite

11-beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency (CYP11B1)

Homo sapiens
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency is one of a group of disorders (collectively called congenital adrenal hyperplasia) that affect the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and produce a variety of hormones that regulate many essential functions in the body. In people with CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency, the adrenal glands produce excess androgens, which are male sex hormones. There are two types of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency, the classic form and the non-classic form. The classic form is the more severe of the two types.

Disease

SMP0120858

Pw122119 View Pathway
Metabolite

11-beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency (CYP11B1)

Rattus norvegicus
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency is one of a group of disorders (collectively called congenital adrenal hyperplasia) that affect the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and produce a variety of hormones that regulate many essential functions in the body. In people with CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency, the adrenal glands produce excess androgens, which are male sex hormones. There are two types of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency, the classic form and the non-classic form. The classic form is the more severe of the two types.

Disease

SMP0120639

Pw121895 View Pathway
Metabolite

11-beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency (CYP11B1)

Mus musculus
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency is one of a group of disorders (collectively called congenital adrenal hyperplasia) that affect the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and produce a variety of hormones that regulate many essential functions in the body. In people with CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency, the adrenal glands produce excess androgens, which are male sex hormones. There are two types of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency, the classic form and the non-classic form. The classic form is the more severe of the two types.

Disease

SMP0121067

Pw122336 View Pathway
Metabolite

11-cis-3-Hydroxyretinal Biosynthesis

Drosophila melanogaster
(3S)-11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal is one of three chromophores, which then associate with rhodopsins. Specifically, this chromophore associates with the Rh1 rhodopsin, a blue/green sensitive visual pigment found in 6 of the 8 photoreceptor cells in Drosophila melanogaster. The production of this chromophore begins with zeaxanthin obtained from Drosophila’s dietary sources. This lipid is broken down into (3R)-11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal and (3R)-all-trans-3-hydroxyretinal by a carotenoid isomerooxygenase. The (3R)-cis-3-hydroxyretinal is then attached to a retinoid binding protein, and this complex goes on to be used in the visual cycle of the organism. However, (3R)-all-trans-3-hydroxyretinal must be further processed. It too binds to a retinoid binding protein that will remain unchanged through the rest of the reactions. First, this complex will have a hydrogen added by a photoreceptor dehydrogenase in order to form (3R)-all-trans-3-hydroxyretinol, and then a photoreceptor epimerase will invert its stereochemistry to form (3S)-all-trans-3-hydroxyretinol. From here, an unknown protein, an oxidoreductase that transposes C=C bonds, will form (3S)-11-cis-3-hydroxyretinol. Finally, another photoreceptor dehydrogenase removes a hydrogen from that complex, forming the final product, (3S)-11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal. This complex then joins (3R)-11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal in the visual cycle.

Metabolic

SMP0000566

Pw000542 View Pathway
Metabolite

17-alpha-Hydroxylase Deficiency (CYP17)

Homo sapiens
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis). Most of these conditions involve excessive or deficient production of sex steroids and can alter development of primary or secondary sex characteristics in some affected infants, children, or adults.

Disease

SMP0120630

Pw121886 View Pathway
Metabolite

17-alpha-Hydroxylase Deficiency (CYP17)

Mus musculus
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis). Most of these conditions involve excessive or deficient production of sex steroids and can alter development of primary or secondary sex characteristics in some affected infants, children, or adults.

Disease

SMP0120849

Pw122110 View Pathway
Metabolite

17-alpha-Hydroxylase Deficiency (CYP17)

Rattus norvegicus
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis). Most of these conditions involve excessive or deficient production of sex steroids and can alter development of primary or secondary sex characteristics in some affected infants, children, or adults.

Disease

SMP0000356

Pw000059 View Pathway
Metabolite

17-beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III Deficiency

Homo sapiens
Defects in 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III (HSD17B3) are the cause of male pseudohermaphrodism with gynecomastia. These individuals have unambiguous female external genitalia at birth, but fail to menstruate at the time of expected puberty and instead virilize as evidenced by growth of the phallus. A defect in HSD17B3 causes accumulation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) as well as androstenedione in plasma.

Disease

SMP0120437

Pw121688 View Pathway
Metabolite

17-beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III Deficiency

Mus musculus
Defects in 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III (HSD17B3) are the cause of male pseudohermaphrodism with gynecomastia. These individuals have unambiguous female external genitalia at birth, but fail to menstruate at the time of expected puberty and instead virilize as evidenced by growth of the phallus. A defect in HSD17B3 causes accumulation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) as well as androstenedione in plasma.

Disease
Showing 1 - 10 of 109291 pathways