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Showing 1 - 10 of 110234 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0000060

Pw000054 View Pathway
Metabolite

Pyruvate Metabolism

Homo sapiens
Pyruvate is an intermediate compound in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. It can be formed from glucose via glycolysis or the transamination of alanine. It can be converted into Acetyl-CoA to be used as the primary energy source for the TCA cycle, or converted into oxaloacetate to replenish TCA cycle intermediates. Pyruvate can also be used to synthesize carbohydrates, fatty acids, ketone bodies, alanine, and steroids. In conditions of inssuficient oxygen or in cells with few mitochondria, pyruvate is reduced to lactate in order to re-oxidize NADH back into NAD+ Pyruvate participates in several key reactions and pathways. In glycolysis, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is converted to pyruvate by pyruvate kinase in an highly exergonic and irreversible reaction. In gluconeogenesis, pyruvate carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase are needed to catalyze the conversion of pyruvate to PEP. In fatty acid synthesis, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex decarboxylates pyruvate to produce acetyl-CoA. In gluconeogenesis, the carboxylation by pyruvate carboxylase produces oxaloacetate. The fate of pyruvate depends on the cell energy charge. In cells or tissues with a high energy charge pyruvate is directed toward gluconeogenesis, but when the energy charge is low pyruvate is preferentially oxidized to CO2 and H2O in the TCA cycle, with generation of 15 equivalents of ATP per pyruvate. The enzymatic activities of the TCA cycle are located in the mitochondrion. When transported into the mitochondrion, pyruvate encounters two principal metabolizing enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase (a gluconeogenic enzyme) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). With a high cell-energy charge, acetyl-CoA, is able allosterically to activate pyruvate carboxylase, directing pyruvate toward gluconeogenesis. When the energy charge is low CoA is not acylated, pyruvate carboxylase is inactive, and pyruvate is preferentially metabolized via the PDH complex and the enzymes of the TCA cycle to CO2 and H2O.

Metabolic

SMP0000464

Pw000047 View Pathway
Metabolite

Vitamin K Metabolism

Homo sapiens
Vitamin K describes a group of lipophilic, hydrophobic vitamins that exist naturally in two forms (and synthetically in three others): vitamin K1, which is found in plants, and vitamin K2, which is synthesized by bacteria. Vitamin K is an important dietary component because it is necessary as a cofacter in the activation of vitamin K dependent proteins. Metabolism of vitamin K occurs mainly in the liver. In the first step, vitamin K is reduced to its quinone form by a quinone reductase such as NAD(P)H dehydrogenase. Reduced vitamin K is the form required to convert vitamin K dependent protein precursors to their active states. It acts as a cofactor to the integral membrane enzyme vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase (along with water and carbon dioxide as co-substrates), which carboxylates glutamyl residues to gamma-carboxy-glutamic acid residues on certain proteins, activating them. Each converted glutamyl residue produces a molecule of vitamin K epoxide, and certain proteins may have more than one residue requiring carboxylation. To complete the cycle, the vitamin K epoxide is returned to vitamin K via the vitamin K epoxide reductase enzyme, also an integral membrane protein. The vitamin K dependent proteins include a number of important coagulation factors, such as prothrombin. Thus, warfarin and other coumarin drugs act as anticoagulants by blocking vitamin K epoxide reductase.

Metabolic

SMP0002058

Pw002044 View Pathway
Metabolite

Palmitate Biosynthesis 2

Escherichia coli
Palmitate is synthesized by stepwise condensation of C2 units to a growing acyl chain. Each elongation cycle results in the addition of two carbons to the acyl chain, and consists of four separate reactions. The pathway starts with acetyl-CoA interacting with hydrogen carbonate through an ATP driven acetyl-CoA carboxylase resulting in a phosphate, an ADP , a hydrogen ion and a malonyl-CoA. The latter compound interacts with a holo-[acp] through a malonyl-CoA-ACP transacylase resulting in a CoA and a malonyl-[acp]. This compound interacts with hydrogen ion, acetyl-CoA through a KASIII resulting in a CoA, carbon dioxide and an acetoacetyl-[acp]. The latter compound interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADPH driven 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase resulting in an NADP and a (R) 3-Hydroxybutanoyl-[acp](1). This compound is then dehydrated by a 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase resulting in the release of water and a crotonyl-[acp](2). The crotonyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADH enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase(NAD) resulting in NAD and a butyryl-[acp](3). The butyryl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion, a malonyl-[acp] through a KASI resulting in a holo-[acp],carbon dioxide and a 3-oxo-hexanoyl-[acp](4). The 3-oxo-hexanoyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADPH driven 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase resulting in an NADP and a (R) 3-Hydroxyhexanoyl-[acp](1). This compound is then dehydrated by a 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase resulting in the release of water and a trans hex-2-enoyl-[acp](2). The trans hex-2-enoyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADH enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase(NAD) resulting in NAD and a hexanoyl-[acp](3). The hexanoyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion, a malonyl-[acp] through a KASI resulting in a holo-[acp],carbon dioxide and a 3-oxo-octanoyl-[acp](4). The 3-oxo-octanoyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADPH driven 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase resulting in an NADP and a (R) 3-Hydroxyoctanoyl-[acp](1). This compound is then dehydrated by a 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase resulting in the release of water and a trans oct-2-enoyl-[acp](2). The trans oct-2-enoyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADH enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase(NAD) resulting in NAD and a octanoyl-[acp](3). The octanoyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion, a malonyl-[acp] through a KASI resulting in a holo-[acp],carbon dioxide and a 3-oxo-decanoyl-[acp](4). The 3-oxo-decanoyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADPH driven 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase resulting in an NADP and a (R) 3-Hydroxydecanoyl-[acp](1). This compound is then dehydrated by a 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase resulting in the release of water and a trans-delta2-decenoyl-[acp](2). The a trans-delta2-decenoyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADH enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase(NAD) resulting in NAD and a decanoyl-[acp](3). The decanoyl-[acp] interacts with a malonyl-[acp] through a KASI resulting in a holo-[acp],carbon dioxide and a 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-[acp](4). The 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-[acp ]interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADPH driven 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase resulting in an NADP and a (R) 3-Hydroxydodecanoyl-[acp](1). This compound is then dehydrated by a 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase resulting in the release of water and a trans dodec-2-enoyl-[acp](2). The trans dodec-2-enoyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADH enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase(NAD) resulting in NAD and a dodecanoyl-[acp](3). This compound can either react with water spontaneously resulting in a hydrogen ion, a holo-[acp] and a dodecanoic acid or it interacts with a hydrogen ion, a malonyl-[acp] through a KASI resulting in a holo-[acp],carbon dioxide and a 3-oxo-myristoyl-[acp](4). The 3-oxo-myristoyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADPH driven 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase resulting in an NADP and a (3R) 3-Hydroxymyristoyl-[acp](1). This compound is then dehydrated by a 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase resulting in the release of water and a trans tetradec-2-enoyl-[acp](2). This compound interacts with a hydrogen ion, through a NADH-driven KASI resulting in a NAD and a myristoyl-[acp]. Myristoyl-[acp] with a hydrogen ion, a malonyl-[acp] through a KASI resulting in a holo-[acp],carbon dioxide and a 3-oxo-palmitoyl-[acp](4). The 3-oxo-palmitoyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADPH driven 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase resulting in an NADP and a (3R) 3-Hydroxypalmitoyl-[acp](1). This compound is then dehydrated by a 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase resulting in the release of water and a trans hexadecenoyl-[acp](2). The trans hexadecenoyl-[acp] interacts with a hydrogen ion through a NADH enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase(NAD) resulting in NAD and a palmitoyl-[acp](3). Palmitoyl then reacts with water spontaneously resulting in a hydrogen ion, a holo-[acp] and palmitic acid. No integral membrane protein required for long chain fatty acid uptake has been identified in E. coli. The transport of long chain fatty acids across the cytoplasmic membrane is dependent on fatty acyl-CoA synthetase. An energised membrane is necessary for fatty acid transport and it has been suggested that uncharged fatty acids flip across the inner membrane by diffusion.

Metabolic

SMP0002063

Pw002049 View Pathway
Metabolite

Fructoselysine and Psicoselysine Degradation

Escherichia coli
Fructosamines are compounds that result from glycation reactions between a sugar and a primary amine, followed by isomerization via the Amadori rearrangement. In fructoselysine degradation, fructoselysine firstly converts to 1-[(5-Amino-5-carboxypentyl)amino]-1-deoxyfructose by protein frlC, and then 1-[(5-Amino-5-carboxypentyl)amino]-1-deoxyfructose is transformed to fructoselysine-6-phosphate by fructoselysine kinase which is powered by ATP. Fructoselysine-6-phosphate finally degrades to β-D-Glucose 6-phosphate and L-lysine by fructoselysine 6-phosphate deglycase.

Metabolic

SMP0002087

Pw002075 View Pathway
Metabolite

Citrate Lyase Activation

Escherichia coli
The citrate lyase activation starts with a 3-dephospho-CoA reacting with ATP and a hydrogen ion through a triphosphoribosyl-dephospho-CoA synthase resulting in a adenine and a 2'-(5'-triphospho-alpha-D-ribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA. The latter compound in turn reacts with with a citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein through a apo-citrate lyase phosphoribosyl-dephospho-CoA transferase resulting in the release of a pyrophosphate and a hydrogen ion and a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein.This protein complex can either react with a hydrogen ion and a acetate resulting in the release of a water and an acetyl-holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein. The holo acyl-carrier protein creacts with an ATP and an acetate through a citrate lyase synthase resulting in the release of an AMP, a pyrophosphate and an acetyl-holo citrate lyase acyl-ccarrier protein. The holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein can also interact with an S-acetyl phosphopantethiene resulting in the release of a 4-phosphopantethiene and an acetyl-holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein.

Metabolic

SMP0002051

Pw002037 View Pathway
Metabolite

L-Carnitine Degradation I

Escherichia coli
L-Carnitine can stimulate anaerobic growth of E.coli when exogenous electron acceptors (i.e. nitrate, etc.) are absent. During anaerobic growth, E.coli can reduce L-carnitine to γ-butyrobetaine by CoA-linked intermediates when carbon and nitrogen are present in the system. Therefore, L-carnitine may act as external electron acceptor for anaerobic growth as well as generation of an osmoprotectant for cell.

Metabolic

SMP0002064

Pw002050 View Pathway
Metabolite

Allantoin Degradation (Anaerobic)

Escherichia coli
Allantoin can be degraded in anaerobic conditions. The first step involves allantoin being degraded by an allantoinase resulting in an allantoate. This compound in turn is metabolized by reacting with water and 2 hydrogen ions through an allantoate amidohydrolase resulting in the release of a carbon dioxide, ammonium and an S-ureidoglycine. The latter compund is further degrades through a S-ureidoglycine aminohydrolase resulting in the release of an ammonium and an S-ureidoglycolate. S-ureidoglycolate can be metabolized into oxalurate by two different reactions. The first reactions involves a NAD driven ureidoglycolate dehydrogenase resulting in the release of a hydrogen ion , an NADH and a oxalurate. On the other hand S-ureidoglycolate can react with NADP resulting in the release of an NADPH, a hydroge ion and an oxalurate. It is hypothesized that oxalurate can interact with a phosphate and release a a carbamoyl phosphate and an oxamate. The carbamoyl phosphate can be further degraded by reacting with an ADP, and a hydrogen ion through a carbamate kinase resulting in the release of an ammonium , ATP and carbon dioxide

Metabolic

SMP0002075

Pw002063 View Pathway
Metabolite

Pyrimidine Deoxyribonucleosides Degradation

Escherichia coli
The degradation of deoxycytidine starts with deoxycytidine being introduced into the cytosol through either a nupG or nupC symporter. Once inside, it can can be degrade through water,a hydrogen ion and a deoxycytidien deaminsa resultin in the release of a ammonium and a a deoxyuridine. The deoxyuridine is then degraded through a uracil phosphorylase resulting in the release of a deoxyribose 1-phosphate and a uracil. The degradation of thymidine starts with thymidine being introduced into the cytosol through either a nupG or nupC symporter. Thymidine is then degrades through a phosphorylase resulting in the release of a thymine and a deoxyribose 1-phosphate.

Metabolic

SMP0002099

Pw002087 View Pathway
Metabolite

Pyruvate to Cytochrome bd Terminal Oxidase Electron Transfer

Escherichia coli
The reaction of pyruvate to cytochrome bd terminal oxidase electron transfer starts with 2 pyruvate and 2 water molecules reacting in a pyruvate oxidase resulting in the release of 4 electrons into the inner membrane, and releasing 2 carbon dioxide molecules , 2 acetate and 4 hydrogen ion into the cytosol. 2 ubiquinone,4 hydrogen ion and 4 electron ion react resulting in the release of 2 ubiquinol . The 2 ubiquinol in turn release 4 hydrogen ions into the periplasmic space through a cytochrome bd-I terminal oxidase and releasing 4 electrons through the enzyme. Oxygen and 4 hydrogen ion reacts with the 4 electrons resulting in 2 water molecules.

Metabolic

SMP0002106

Pw002094 View Pathway
Metabolite

Ethanolamine Metabolism

Escherichia coli
Ethanolamine, in E. coli, is produced through phospholipid biosynthesis. Once in the cytosol it can be used to produce acetaldehyde by reacting with ethanolamine ammonia-lyase resulting in the release of ammonium and acetaldehyde.

Metabolic
Showing 1 - 10 of 110234 pathways