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Last Updated: 2019-02-08
Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway with sequence of ten reactions involving ten intermediate compounds that converts glucose to pyruvate. Glycolysis release free energy for forming high energy compound such as ATP and NADH. Glycolysis is consisted of two phases, which one of them is chemical priming phase and second phase is energy-yielding phase. As the starting compound of chemical priming phase, D-glucose can be obtained from galactose metabolism or imported by monosaccharide-sensing protein 1 from outside of cell. D-Glucose is catalyzed by probable hexokinase-like 2 protein to form glucose 6-phosphate which is powered by ATP. Glucose 6-phosphate transformed to fructose 6-phosphate by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, which the later compound will be converted to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, which is the last reaction of chemical priming phase by 6-phosphofructokinase with cofactor magnesium, and it is also powered by ATP. Before entering the second phase, aldolase catalyzing the hydrolysis of F1,6BP into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate can convert to each other bidirectionally by facilitation of triosephosphate isomerase. The second phase of glycolysis is yielding-energy phase that produce ATP and NADH. At the first step, D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is catalyzed to glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase with NAD, which also generate NADH. ATP is generated through the reaction that convert glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate to 3-phosphoglyceric acid. Phosphoglycerate mutase 2 catalyze 3-phosphoglyceric acid to 2-Phospho-D-glyceric acid, and alpha-enolase with cofactor magnesium catalyzes 2-Phospho-D-glyceric acid to phosphoenolpyruvic acid. Eventually, plastidial pyruvate kinase 4 converts phosphoenolpyruvic acid to pyruvate with cofactor magnesium and potassium and ADP. Pyruvate will undergo pyruvate metabolism, tyrosine metabolism and pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis.
Lehninger, A.L. Lehninger principles of biochemistry (4th ed.) (2005). New York: W.H Freeman.
Salway, J.G. Metabolism at a glance (3rd ed.) (2004). Alden, Mass.: Blackwell Pub.
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