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Last Updated: 2018-12-21
Bacterial Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) mediates the quorum sensing 2 system. AI-2 is catalyzed by the luxS enzyme. This enzyme is found in E.coli and S.typhimurium. In E. coli and most pathogenic bacteria that form AI-2 are spontaneous transformations that include cyclization to (2R,4S)-2-methyl-2,4-dihydroxydihydrofuran-3-one and hydration to the final autoinducer (2R,4S)-2-methyl-2,3,3,4-tetrahydroxytetrahydrofuran. This product is released from the cell through the AI-2 transporter (tqsA). As the level of AI-2 increases, other cells detect it and import it through the autoinducer-2 ABC transporter (lsrACDB). AI-2 is then degraded in the cells by phosphorylating the AI-2 which is then isomerized to P-HPD which follows by the transfer of and acetyl group to coenzyme A and releases dihydroxyacetone phosphate
Quorum Sensing References
Marques JC, Oh IK, Ly DC, Lamosa P, Ventura MR, Miller ST, Xavier KB: LsrF, a coenzyme A-dependent thiolase, catalyzes the terminal step in processing the quorum sensing signal autoinducer-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 30;111(39):14235-40. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1408691111. Epub 2014 Sep 15.Pubmed: 25225400
Li J, Attila C, Wang L, Wood TK, Valdes JJ, Bentley WE: Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli is signaled by AI-2/LsrR: effects on small RNA and biofilm architecture. J Bacteriol. 2007 Aug;189(16):6011-20. doi: 10.1128/JB.00014-07. Epub 2007 Jun 8.Pubmed: 17557827
Hardie KR, Heurlier K: Establishing bacterial communities by 'word of mouth': LuxS and autoinducer 2 in biofilm development. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008 Aug;6(8):635-43. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro1916. Epub 2008 Jun 9.Pubmed: 18536728
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