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Last Updated: 2019-02-07
Monoterpenoids are kind of volatile oils, which are derived from geranyl diphosphate (Geranyl-PP/GPP) that are also consisted of two isoprene units. In Arabidopsis thaliana, most reactions in monoterpenoid biosynthesis take place in the chloroplast and require either magnesium or manganese ions as cofactors. S-(+)-linalool synthase catalyzes the conversion of geranyl diphosphate into (+)-linalool. Two different enzymes can function as myrcene synthases and catalyze the conversion of geranyl diphosphate into myrcene: tricyclene synthase and beta-myrcene/(E)-beta-ocimene synthase 2. 1,8-cineole synthase catalyzes two successive reactions in monoterpenoid biosynthesis: the conversion of geranyl diphosphate into alpha-terpineol and the conversion of alpha-terpineol into eucalyptol (1,8-cineole). Distinct from the other enzymes listed, (+)-Neomenthol dehydrogenase is an enzyme found in the cytosol that catalyzes the conversion of (-)-menthone into (+)-neomenthol.
Monoterpenoid Biosynthesis References
Chen F, Tholl D, D'Auria JC, Farooq A, Pichersky E, Gershenzon J: Biosynthesis and emission of terpenoid volatiles from Arabidopsis flowers. Plant Cell. 2003 Feb;15(2):481-94.Pubmed: 12566586
Chen F, Ro DK, Petri J, Gershenzon J, Bohlmann J, Pichersky E, Tholl D: Characterization of a root-specific Arabidopsis terpene synthase responsible for the formation of the volatile monoterpene 1,8-cineole. Plant Physiol. 2004 Aug;135(4):1956-66. doi: 10.1104/pp.104.044388. Epub 2004 Aug 6.Pubmed: 15299125
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