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Taurine and Hypotaurine Metabolism
Last Updated: 2019-08-16
There is an organic acid known as Taurine, which is a derivative product of sulfhydryl amino acid (which contains sulfur), as well as cysteine. The synthesis or metabolism in mammalian systems of this acid transpires within the pancreas in such a fashion that it utilizes a pathway known as the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway. To put this process in context, its occurrence is often seen in vivo, in hepatocytes, and is fundamental in the cyclical process of recovering bile acids from the intenstine, turning them back into salts and returning them to the bile. In essence the cysteine pathway induces a sulfhydryl group to be oxidized, creating cysteine sulfinic acid, by utilizing the appropriate enzymes (ie cysteine dioxygenase). This new acid undergoes decarboxylation creating a new compound: hypotaurine. This process goes on as Taurine now is subjected to conjugation vis a vis its amino terminal group. This includes acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid, and in turn the formation of bile salts occurs. Moreover, this entire process can be catalyzed via bile acid and a special amino acid N-acetyltransferase.
Taurine and Hypotaurine Metabolism References
Harhay GP, Sonstegard TS, Keele JW, Heaton MP, Clawson ML, Snelling WM, Wiedmann RT, Van Tassell CP, Smith TP: Characterization of 954 bovine full-CDS cDNA sequences. BMC Genomics. 2005 Nov 23;6:166. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-6-166.Pubmed: 16305752
Zimin AV, Delcher AL, Florea L, Kelley DR, Schatz MC, Puiu D, Hanrahan F, Pertea G, Van Tassell CP, Sonstegard TS, Marcais G, Roberts M, Subramanian P, Yorke JA, Salzberg SL: A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus. Genome Biol. 2009;10(4):R42. doi: 10.1186/gb-2009-10-4-r42. Epub 2009 Apr 24.Pubmed: 19393038
Liu P, Ge X, Ding H, Jiang H, Christensen BM, Li J: Role of glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1 (GADL1) in taurine biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 30;287(49):40898-906. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.393728. Epub 2012 Oct 4.Pubmed: 23038267
This pathway was propagated using PathWhiz - Pon, A. et al. Pathways with PathWhiz (2015) Nucleic Acids Res. 43(Web Server issue): W552–W559.
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