Error: Pathway image not found.
Gastric Acid Production
Last Updated: 2019-08-16
Gastric acid plays a key role in the digestion of proteins by activating digestive enzymes to break down long chains of amino acids. In addition, it aids in the absorption of certain vitamins and minerals and also acts as one of the body's first line of defence by killing ingested micro-organisms. This digestive fluid is formed in the stomach (specifically by the parietal cells) and is mainly composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl). However, it is also constituted of potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl). The main stimulants of acid secretion are histamine, gastrin, and acetylcholine which all, after binding to their respective receptors on the parietal cell membrane, trigger a G-protein signalling cascade that causes the activation of the H+/K+ ATPase proton pump. As a result, hydrogen ions are able to be pumped out of the parietal cell and into the lumen of the stomach. The hydrogen ions are available inside the parietal cell after water and carbon dioxide combine to form carbonic acid(the reaction is catalyzed by the carbonic anhydrase enzyme) which dissociates into a bicarbonate ion and a hydrogen ion. Moreover, the chloride and potassium ions are transported into the stomach lumen through their own channels so that hydrogen ions and/or potassium ions can form an ionic bond with chloride ions to form HCl and/or KCl, which are both constituents of stomach acid. In addition, the peptide hormone somatostatin is the main inhibitor to gastric acid secretion. Not only does it inhibit the G-protein signalling cascade that leads to proton pump activation, but it also directly acts on the enterochromaffin-like cells and G cells to inhibit histamine and gastrin release, respectively.
Gastric Acid Production References
Ruiz A, Bhat SP, Bok D: Expression and synthesis of the Na,K-ATPase beta 2 subunit in human retinal pigment epithelium. Gene. 1996 Oct 17;176(1-2):237-42. doi: 10.1016/0378-1119(96)00258-2.Pubmed: 8918259
Crambert G, Fuzesi M, Garty H, Karlish S, Geering K: Phospholemman (FXYD1) associates with Na,K-ATPase and regulates its transport properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Aug 20;99(17):11476-81. doi: 10.1073/pnas.182267299. Epub 2002 Aug 8.Pubmed: 12169672
Feschenko MS, Donnet C, Wetzel RK, Asinovski NK, Jones LR, Sweadner KJ: Phospholemman, a single-span membrane protein, is an accessory protein of Na,K-ATPase in cerebellum and choroid plexus. J Neurosci. 2003 Mar 15;23(6):2161-9.Pubmed: 12657675
Chuang JZ, Milner TA, Zhu M, Sung CH: A 29 kDa intracellular chloride channel p64H1 is associated with large dense-core vesicles in rat hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci. 1999 Apr 15;19(8):2919-28.Pubmed: 10191309
Brenig B, Baumgartner BG, Kriegesmann B, Habermann F, Fries R, Swalve HH: Molecular cloning, mapping, and functional analysis of the bovine sulfate transporter SLC26a2 gene. Gene. 2003 Nov 13;319:161-6. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(03)00806-0.Pubmed: 14597181
Lund T, Olsen J, Rehfeld JF: Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene. Mol Endocrinol. 1989 Oct;3(10):1585-8. doi: 10.1210/mend-3-10-1585.Pubmed: 2608050
Kim SJ, Uhm KN, Kang YK, Yoo OJ: Bovine and feline gastrin cDNA sequences and the amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies among mammalian species. DNA Seq. 1991;1(3):181-7.Pubmed: 1773057
Agarwal KL, Beacham J, Bentley PH, Gregory RA, Kenner GW, Sheppard RC, Tracy HJ: Isolation, structure and synthesis of ovine and bovine gastrins. Nature. 1968 Aug 10;219(5154):614-5. doi: 10.1038/219614a0.Pubmed: 5665711
Dufresne M, Escrieut C, Clerc P, Le Huerou-Luron I, Prats H, Bertrand V, Le Meuth V, Guilloteau P, Vaysse N, Fourmy D: Molecular cloning, developmental expression and pharmacological characterization of the CCKB/gastrin receptor in the calf pancreas. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Feb 15;297(1-2):165-79. doi: 10.1016/0014-2999(95)00737-7.Pubmed: 8851180
Su CJ, White JW, Li WH, Luo CC, Frazier ML, Saunders GF, Chan L: Structure and evolution of somatostatin genes. Mol Endocrinol. 1988 Mar;2(3):209-16. doi: 10.1210/mend-2-3-209.Pubmed: 2899837
Furu LM, Kazmer GW, Strausbaugh L, Zinn SA: Cloning and characterization of the bovine somatostatin gene. J Anim Sci. 1999 Feb;77(2):492-3. doi: 10.2527/1999.772492x.Pubmed: 10100681
Zimin AV, Delcher AL, Florea L, Kelley DR, Schatz MC, Puiu D, Hanrahan F, Pertea G, Van Tassell CP, Sonstegard TS, Marcais G, Roberts M, Subramanian P, Yorke JA, Salzberg SL: A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus. Genome Biol. 2009;10(4):R42. doi: 10.1186/gb-2009-10-4-r42. Epub 2009 Apr 24.Pubmed: 19393038
Lee PH, Hodges PK, Glickman F, Chang KJ: Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding bovine muscarinic acetylcholine m3 receptor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Aug 11;1223(1):151-4. doi: 10.1016/0167-4889(94)90085-x.Pubmed: 8061048
This pathway was propagated using PathWhiz - Pon, A. et al. Pathways with PathWhiz (2015) Nucleic Acids Res. 43(Web Server issue): W552–W559.
Propagated from SMP0000589
Highlighted elements will appear in red.
Enter relative concentration values (without units). Elements will be highlighted in a color gradient where red = lowest concentration and green = highest concentration. For the best results, view the pathway in Black and White.
Visualize Compound Data
Visualize Protein Data