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Last Updated: 2018-12-21
Galactose can be synthesized through two pathways: melibiose degradation involving an alpha galactosidase and lactose degradation involving a beta galactosidase. Melibiose is first transported inside the cell through the melibiose:Li+/Na+/H+ symporter. Once inside the cell, melibiose is degraded through alpha galactosidase into an alpha-D-galactose and a beta-D-glucose. The beta-D-glucose is phosphorylated by a glucokinase to produce a beta-D-glucose-6-phosphate which can spontaneously be turned into a alpha D glucose 6 phosphate. This alpha D-glucose-6-phosphate is metabolized into a glucose -1-phosphate through a phosphoglucomutase-1. The glucose -1-phosphate is transformed into a uridine diphosphate glucose through UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. The product, uridine diphosphate glucose, can undergo a reversible reaction in which it can be turned into uridine diphosphategalactose through an UDP-glucose 4-epimerase. Galactose can also be produced by lactose degradation involving a lactose permease to uptake lactose from the environment and a beta-galactosidase to turn lactose into Beta-D-galactose. Beta-D-galactose can also be uptaken from the environment through a galactose proton symporter. Galactose is degraded through the following process: Beta-D-galactose is introduced into the cytoplasm through a galactose proton symporter, or it can be synthesized from an alpha lactose that is introduced into the cytoplasm through a lactose permease. Alpha lactose interacts with water through a beta-galactosidase resulting in a beta-D-glucose and beta-D-galactose. Beta-D-galactose is isomerized into D-galactose. D-Galactose undergoes phosphorylation through a galactokinase, hence producing galactose 1 phosphate. On the other side of the pathway, a gluose-1-phosphate (product of the interaction of alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate with a phosphoglucomutase resulting in a alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate, an isomer of Glucose 1-phosphate, or an isomer of Beta-D-glucose 1-phosphate) interacts with UTP and a hydrogen ion in order to produce a uridine diphosphate glucose. This is followed by the interaction of galactose-1-phosphate with an established amount of uridine diphosphate glucose through a galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, which in turn output a glucose-1-phosphate and a uridine diphosphate galactose. The glucose -1-phosphate is transformed into a uridine diphosphate glucose through UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. The product, uridine diphosphate glucose, can undergo a reversible reaction in which it can be turned into uridine diphosphategalactose through an UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, and so the cycle can keep going as long as more lactose or galactose is imported into the cell
Galactose Metabolism References
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