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Last Updated: 2018-12-21
The biosynthesis of glutathione starts with the introduction of L-glutamic acid through either a glutamate:sodium symporter, glutamate / aspartate : H+ symporter GltP or a glutamate / aspartate ABC transporter. Once in the cytoplasm, L-glutamice acid reacts with L-cysteine through an ATP glutamate-cysteine ligase resulting in gamma-glutamylcysteine. This compound reacts which Glycine through an ATP driven glutathione synthetase thus catabolizing Glutathione. This compound is metabolized through a spontaneous reaction with an oxidized glutaredoxin resulting in a reduced glutaredoxin and an oxidized glutathione. This compound is reduced by a NADPH glutathione reductase resulting in a glutathione. Glutathione can then be degraded into various different glutathione containg compounds by reacting with a napthalene or Bromobenzene-2,3-oxide through a glutathione S-transferase
Glutathione Metabolism References
Apontoweil P, Berends W: Glutathione biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K 12. Properties of the enzymes and regulation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Jul 14;399(1):1-9.Pubmed: 238647
Toledano MB, Kumar C, Le Moan N, Spector D, Tacnet F: The system biology of thiol redox system in Escherichia coli and yeast: differential functions in oxidative stress, iron metabolism and DNA synthesis. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jul 31;581(19):3598-607. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2007.07.002.Pubmed: 17659286
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