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Hexuronide and Hexuronate Degradation
Last Updated: 2019-02-07
Beta-D-glucuronosides, D-glucuronate and D-fructuronate can be used as source of carbon for E.coli. They are imported into E.coli's periplasmic space by membrane-associated protein (UidC/gusC), and are further imported into cytoplasm by hydrogen symporter. Beta-glucuronides undergoes hydrolysis by beta-D-glucuronidase to form D-glucuronate. D-glucuronate is isomerized by D-glucuronate isomerase to form D-fructuronate. D-fructuronate is further reduced to D-mannonate by D-mannonate oxidoreductase. D-mannonate dehydratase dehydrated to yield 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate. At this point, a common enzyme, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconokinase, phosphorylates 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate to yield 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate-6-phosphate. This product is then process by KHG/KDPG aldolase which in turn produces D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and Pyruvic Acid which then go into their respective sub pathways: glycolysis and pyruvate dehydrogenase. The pathway can also start from 3 other points: a hydrogen ion symporter (gluconate/fructuronate transporter GntP) of D-fructuronate, a hydrogen ion symporter (Hexuronate transporter) of aldehydo-D-galacturonate that spontaneously turns into D-tagaturonate. This compound can also be obtained by the reaction of aldehydo-L-galactonate with a NAD dependent l-galactonate oxidoreductase resulting in the release of NADH, hydrogen ion. Tagaturonate then undergoes an NADH-dependent reduction to D-altronate through an altronate oxidoreductase. D-altronate undergoes dehydration to yield 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, the third and last point where the reaction can start from a hydrogen symporter of a 2-dehydro-3-deoy-D-gluconate.
Hexuronide and Hexuronate Degradation References
Mandrand-Berthelot MA, Condemine G, Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N: Catabolism of Hexuronides, Hexuronates, Aldonates, and Aldarates. EcoSal Plus. 2004 Dec;1(1). doi: 10.1128/ecosalplus.3.4.2.Pubmed: 26443361
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