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1,6-Anhydro-N-acetylmuramic Acid Recycling
Last Updated: 2019-01-21
Most bacteria, including Escherichia coli, are composed of murein which protects and stabilizes the cell wall. Over half of the murein is broken down by Escherichia coli and recycled for the next generation. The main muropeptide is GlcNAc-anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid (anhMurNAc)-l-Ala-γ-d-Glu-meso-Dap-d-Ala which enters the cytoplasm by AmpG protein. The peptide is then released from the muropeptide. 1,6-Anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid (anhMurNAc) is recycled by its conversion to N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate (GlcNAc-P). The sugar is phosphorylated by anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid kinase (AnmK) to produce MurNAc-P. Etherase cleaves MurNAc-P to produce N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate. The product can undergo further degradation or be recycled into peptidoglycan monomers. The pathway's final product is a peptidoglycan biosynthesis precursor, UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-muramate. The enzyme muropeptide ligase (mpl), attaches the recovered Ala-Glu-DAP tripeptide to the precursor UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-muramate to return to the peptide to the peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway to synthesize the cell wall.
1,6-Anhydro-N-acetylmuramic Acid Recycling References
Uehara T, Suefuji K, Valbuena N, Meehan B, Donegan M, Park JT: Recycling of the anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid derived from cell wall murein involves a two-step conversion to N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate. J Bacteriol. 2005 Jun;187(11):3643-9. doi: 10.1128/JB.187.11.3643-3649.2005.Pubmed: 15901686
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