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Showing 51 - 60 of 110297 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0002363

Pw002462 View Pathway
Metabolite

Porphyrin Metabolism

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Porphyrins are organic compounds. Many porphyrins are involved in oxygen transportation. Porphyrin ring biosynthesis begins in the mitochondria and involves glycine and succinyl-CoA condensation by δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS) to produce δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), also known as 5-aminolevulinic acid. ALA is then transported to the cytosol where it becomes dimerized by ALA dehydratase (also known as porphobilinogen synthase) to produce porphobilinogen. The pathway continues with the condensation of 4 molecules of porphobilinogen catalyzed by porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG deaminase, also called hydroxymethylbilane synthase or uroporphyrinogen I synthase) to produce hydroxymethylbilane. Hydroxymethylbilane may then be converted to uroporphyrinogen III, a heme intermediate, or it may be non-enzymatically cyclized to uroporphyrinogen I. In the cytosol, uroporphyrinogen I and III substituents become decarboxylated to become coproporphyrinogens. Coproporphyrinogen III is an important intermediate in the synthesis of heme. In the inner mitochondria, coproporphyrinogen III undergoes decarboxylation of 2 propionate residues producing protoporphyrinogen IX. Protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase converts protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX. The final reaction of heme synthesis is ferrochelatase catalyzing the insertion of iron into the ring, producing heme b. Heme is broken down when heme oxygenase opens the heme ring. This oxidation produces linear tetrapyrrole biliverdin, ferric iron (Fe3+), and carbon monoxide (CO). Biliverdin reductase then produces bilirubin.

Metabolic

SMP0000914

Pw000895 View Pathway
Metabolite

Amino Sugar and Nucleotide Sugar Metabolism III

Escherichia coli
The synthesis of amino sugars and nucleotide sugars starts with the phosphorylation of N-Acetylmuramic acid (MurNac) through its transport from the periplasmic space to the cytoplasm. Once in the cytoplasm, MurNac and water undergo a reversible reaction catalyzed by N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate etherase, producing a D-lactic acid and N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine 6-phosphate. This latter compound can also be introduced into the cytoplasm through a phosphorylating PTS permase in the inner membrane that allows for the transport of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine from the periplasmic space. N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine 6-phosphate can also be obtained from chitin dependent reactions. Chitin is hydrated through a bifunctional chitinase to produce chitobiose. This in turn gets hydrated by a beta-hexosaminidase to produce N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The latter undergoes an atp dependent phosphorylation leading to the production of N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine 6-phosphate. N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine 6-phosphate is then be deacetylated in order to produce Glucosamine 6-phosphate through a N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase. This compound can either be isomerized or deaminated into Beta-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate through a glucosamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase and a glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase respectively. Glucosamine 6-phosphate undergoes a reversible reaction to glucosamine 1 phosphate through a phosphoglucosamine mutase. This compound is then acetylated through a bifunctional protein glmU to produce a N-Acetyl glucosamine 1-phosphate. N-Acetyl glucosamine 1-phosphate enters the nucleotide sugar synthesis by reacting with UTP and hydrogen ion through a bifunctional protein glmU releasing pyrophosphate and a Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine.This compound can either be isomerized into a UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine or undergo a reaction with phosphoenolpyruvic acid through UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase releasing a phosphate and a UDP-N-Acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine-enolpyruvate. UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine undergoes a NAD dependent dehydrogenation through a UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine dehydrogenase, releasing NADH, a hydrogen ion and a UDP-N-Acetyl-alpha-D-mannosaminuronate, This compound is then used in the production of enterobacterial common antigens. UDP-N-Acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine-enolpyruvate is reduced through a NADPH dependent UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductase, releasing a NADP and a UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-muramate. This compound is involved in the D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism.

Metabolic

SMP0000839

Pw000819 View Pathway
Metabolite

Gluconeogenesis from L-Malic Acid

Escherichia coli
Gluconeogenesis from L-malic acid starts from the introduction of L-malic acid into cytoplasm either through a C4 dicarboxylate / orotate:H+ symporter or a dicarboxylate transporter (succinic acid antiporter). L-malic acid is then metabolized through 3 possible ways: NAD driven malate dehydrogenase resulting in oxalacetic acid, NADP driven malate dehydrogenase B resulting pyruvic acid or malate dehydrogenase, NAD-requiring resulting in pyruvic acid. Oxalacetic acid is processed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP driven) while pyruvic acid is processed by phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase resulting in phosphoenolpyruvic acid. This compound is dehydrated by enolase resulting in an 2-phosphoglyceric acid which is then isomerized by 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase resulting in a 3-phosphoglyceric acid which is phosphorylated by an ATP driven phosphoglycerate kinase resulting in a glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate. This compound undergoes an NADH driven glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction resulting in a D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate which is first isomerized into dihydroxyacetone phosphate through an triosephosphate isomerase. D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and Dihydroxyacetone phosphate react through a fructose biphosphate aldolase protein complex resulting in a fructose 1,6-biphosphate. Fructose 1,6-biphosphateis is metabolized by a fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase resulting in a Beta-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate which is then isomerized into a Beta-D-glucose 6-phosphate through a glucose-6-phosphate isomerase.

Metabolic

SMP0000925

Pw000908 View Pathway
Metabolite

Folate Biosynthesis

Escherichia coli
The biosynthesis of folic acid begins as a product of purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis pathway. Purine nucleotides are involved in a reaction with water through a GTP cyclohydrolase 1 protein complex, resulting in a hydrogen ion, formic acid and 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3-triphosphate. The latter compound is dephosphorylated through a dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase resulting in the release of a pyrophosphate, hydrogen ion and 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3-phosphate. The latter product reacts with water spontaneously resulting in the release of a phosphate and a 7,8 -dihydroneopterin. 7,8 -dihydroneopterin reacts with a dihydroneopterin aldolase, releasing a glycoaldehyde and 6-hydroxymethyl-7,9-dihydropterin. Continuing, 6-hydroxymethyl-7,9-dihydropterin is phosphorylated with a ATP-driven 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase resulting in a (2-amino-4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl diphosphate. Chorismate is metabolized by reacting with L-glutamine through a 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase resulting in L-glutamic acid and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate. The latter product is then catalyzed via an aminodeoxychorismate lyase resulting in pyruvic acid, hydrogen ion and p-aminobenzoic acid. (2-amino-4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl diphosphate and p-aminobenzoic acid react with the help of a dihydropteroate synthase resulting in pyrophosphate and 7,8-dihydropteroic acid. This compound then reacts with L-glutamic acid through an ATP driven bifunctional folylpolyglutamate synthease / dihydrofolate synthease resulting in a 7,8-dihydrofolate monoglutamate. 7,8-dihydrofolate monoglutamate is then reduced via a NADPH mediated dihydrofolate reductase resulting in a tetrahydrofate which will continue and become a metabolite of the folate pathway

Metabolic

SMP0000853

Pw000833 View Pathway
Metabolite

Glutathione Metabolism

Escherichia coli
The biosynthesis of glutathione starts with the introduction of L-glutamic acid through either a glutamate:sodium symporter, glutamate / aspartate : H+ symporter GltP or a glutamate / aspartate ABC transporter. Once in the cytoplasm, L-glutamice acid reacts with L-cysteine through an ATP glutamate-cysteine ligase resulting in gamma-glutamylcysteine. This compound reacts which Glycine through an ATP driven glutathione synthetase thus catabolizing Glutathione. This compound is metabolized through a spontaneous reaction with an oxidized glutaredoxin resulting in a reduced glutaredoxin and an oxidized glutathione. This compound is reduced by a NADPH glutathione reductase resulting in a glutathione. Glutathione can then be degraded into various different glutathione containing compounds by reacting with a napthalene or Bromobenzene-2,3-oxide through a glutathione S-transferase.

Metabolic

SMP0000846

Pw000826 View Pathway
Metabolite

Fucose and Rhamnose Degradation

Escherichia coli
In E. coli, L-fucose and L-rhamnose are metabolized through parallel pathways. The pathways converge after their corresponding aldolase reactions yielding the same products: lactaldehye. Proton symporter can facilitate the import of alpha-L-rhamnopyranose, methylpentose and beta-L-rhamnopyranose into cell for further metabolism, which allow E.coli to grow with carbon and energy. For alpha-L-rhamnopyranose, it is isomerized by a l-rhamnose mutarotase resulting in a beta-L-rhamnopyranose which is then isomerized into a keto-L-rhamnulose by a l-rhamnose isomerase. The keto-L-rhamnulose spontaneously changes into a L-rhamnulofuranose which is phosphorylated by a rhamnulokinase resulting in a L-rhamnulose 1-phosphate. This compound reacts with a rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase resulting in a dihydroxyacetone phosphate and a lactaldehyde. For beta-L-rhamnopyranose, it is isomerized by a L-fucose mutarotase resulting in a alpha-L-fucopyranose. This compound is then isomerized by an L-fucose isomerase resulting in a L-fuculose which in turn gets phosphorylated into an L-fuculose 1-phosphate through an L-fuculokinase. The compound L-fuculose 1-phosphate reacts with an L-fuculose phosphate aldolase through a dihydroxyacetone phosphate and a lactaldehyde. Two pathways can both be used for degrading L-lactaldehyde, which the aerobic pathway facilitates the conversion from L-lactic acid to pyruvic acid via L-lactate dehydrogenase, and the anaerobic pathway facilitates conversion from lactaldehyde to propane-1,2-diol via lactaldehyde reductase. Under aerobic conditions, L-lactaldehyde is oxidized in two steps to pyruvate, thereby channeling all the carbons from fucose or rhamnose into central metabolic pathways. Under anaerobic conditions, L-lactaldehyde is reduced to L-1,2-propanediol, which is secreted into the environment.

Metabolic

SMP0000827

Pw000807 View Pathway
Metabolite

Phenylalanine Biosynthesis

Escherichia coli
The phenylalaline biosynthesis pathways is connected with the chorismate biosynthesis pathway. Chorismate biosynthesis produce the chorismate, which further be converted to prephenate by P-protein. Combined with cofactor, H+, prephenate has been further converted to phenylpyruvic acid by P-protein with generated water and carbon dioxide. Phenylalanine transaminase catalyzes phenylpyruvic acid to phenylalaline, and also convert glutamic acid to oxoglutaric acid. Phenylalaline will be further used in phenylalaline metabolism.

Metabolic

SMP0000791

Pw000768 View Pathway
Metabolite

D-Alanine Metabolism

Escherichia coli
L-Alanine is an essential component of both proteins and Peptidoglycan. Peptidoglycan also contain about three molecules of D-alanine for every L-alanine, comprising of only about 10% of the total alanine synthesized flowing into peptidoglycan. (More info can be found at L-alanine metabolism pathway: PW000788 or SMP0000810) In this pathway, D-amino acid dehydrogenase degrades D-alanine to form pyruvate, pyruvate then serving as a source of carbon for central metabolism. D-alanine can be formed by either biosynthetic alanine racemase or catabolic alanine racemase. D-alanine is required for forming cell wall peptidoglycan (murein). D-alanine is metabolized by ATP driven D-alanine ligase A and B resulting in D-alanyl-D-alanine. This product is incorporated into peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

Metabolic

SMP0030406

Pw031290 View Pathway
Metabolite

Androstenedione Metabolism

Homo sapiens
Androstenedione is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone that is a precursor of testosterone and other androgens, as well as of estrogens like estrone . Its metabolism occurs primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum (membrane-associated enzymes are coloured dark green in the image). Conversion of androstenedione to testosterone requires the enzyme testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 3. Conversion of androstenedione to estrone involves three successive reactions catalyzed by the enzyme aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1). Androstenedione can also be converted into etiocholanolone glucuronide, androsterone glucuronide, and adrenosterone. The three-reaction subpathway to synthesize etiocholanolone glucuronide begins with the enzyme 3-oxo-5-beta-steroid 4-dehydrogenase catalyzing the conversion of androstenedione to etiocholanedione. This is followed by the conversion of etiocholanedione to etiocholanolone which is catalyzed by aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4. Lastly, the large membrane-associated multimer UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 catalyzes the conversion of etiocholanolone to etiocholanolone glucuronide. The three-reaction subpathway to synthesize androsterone glucuronide begins with the conversion of androstenedione to androstanedione via 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 1. Anstrostanedione is then converted into androsterone via aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4. The last reaction to form androsterone glucuronide is catalyzed by the large multimer UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1. The two-reaction subpathway to synthesize adrenosterone begins in the mitochondrial inner membrane where androstenedione is first converted into 11beta-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione by the enzyme cytochrome P450 11B1. Following transport to the endoplasmic reticulum, 11beta-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione is converted into adrenosterone via corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1.

Metabolic

SMP0000809

Pw000787 View Pathway
Metabolite

Aspartate Metabolism

Escherichia coli
Aspartate is synthesized from and broken down to oxaloacetate, a TCA cycle intermediate, via a reversible transamination reaction with glutamate. This reaction is catalyzed by the aminotransferase AspC or TyrB. Aspartate is a component of proteins and is involved in many biosyntheses pathways like NAD biosynthesis and beta-alanine metabolism. Aspartate can also be synthesized from fumaric acid through an aspartate ammonia lyase. Aspartate also participates in the synthesis of L-asparagine through two different methods, either through aspartate ammonia ligase or asparagine synthetase B. Aspartate is also a precursor of fumaric acid. Again it has two possible ways of synthesizing it. First set of reactions follows an adenylo succinate synthetase that yields adenylsuccinic acid and then adenylosuccinate lyase in turns leads to fumaric acid. The second way is through argininosuccinate synthase that yields argininosuccinic acid and then argininosuccinate lyase in turns leads to fumaric acid.

Metabolic
Showing 51 - 60 of 110297 pathways